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  1. Before Reading_Main Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading 1. Warm-up Questions 2. Listening Comprehension 3. Background Information Polls of public opinion State Regents’ examinations Income taxes Competency tests 4. An Opinion Poll

  2. Before Reading_1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Warm-up Questions • What does the video clip describe? Do you think it funny? Why? • Have you ever cheated on exams or thought of cheating on exams? What are the reasons? • What do you think of cheating on exams? • Do you think we can stop cheating? If yes, how? If no, why? • Can you imagine what would happen if there were no exams? ■

  3. Before Reading_2.1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Listening Comprehension Honest Abe dismay: sundry: 沮丧 各式各样的 trifle: conscientious: 琐事 尽责的

  4. Before Reading_2.1.1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading When Abraham Lincoln was young he worked in a store. As a clerk he proved honest and efficient. One day a woman came into the store and purchased sundry articles. They added up to two dollars and six and a quarter cents, or the young clerk thought they did. The bill was paid, and the woman was entirely satisfied. But the young store-keeper, not feeling quite sure as to the accuracy of his calculation, added up the items once more. To his dismay he found that the sum total should have been but two dollars. “I’ve made her pay six and a quarter cents too much,” said Abe, disturbed. It was a trifle, and many clerks would have dismissed it as such. But Abe was too conscientious to forget about the overcharge. “The money must be paid back,” he decided. This would have been easy enough had the woman lived just round the corner, but, as the young man knew, she lived between two and three miles away. This, however, did not alter the matter. It was night, but he closed and locked the store, and walked to the residence of his customer. Having arrived there, he explained the matter, paid over the six and a quarter cents, and returned satisfiedly. ■

  5. Before Reading_2.2 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading 1. What kind of clerk was Abe when he was working in the store? 2. How much did the woman pay for the items she bought? 3. Did Abe add up the items for a second time? Why? 4. What did Abe decide to do after he found the mistake? 5. How far is the woman’s house from the store? 6. How did Abe feel after he returned the money? He was honest and efficient. Two dollars and six and a quarter cents. Yes. Because he was not sure as to the accuracy of his calculation. He decided to pay the money back. Between two and three miles away. He felt satisfied.

  6. Before Reading_3.1.1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Background Information 1. Polls of public opinion 1) Public opinion poll: a method of learning what people think and how they feel about a wide variety of subjects 2) The first public poll: in 1824, in the US, one of the best-known — the Gallup Poll 3) Two sampling methods: random and quota sampling

  7. Before Reading_3.1.2 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading A public opinion poll is a method of learning what people think and how they feel about a wide variety of subjects. The first poll of public opinion was conducted in 1824 in the US. In the early 20th century public opinion polls began using statistical sampling techniques. After the Second World War and particularly in the 1960s the popularity of the opinion polls grew. One of the best-known is the Gallup Poll — a poll of public opinion on a major political or social issue, developed by George H. Gallup, an American statistician. Two methods of sampling are practiced by the polls, random and quota sampling. The former consists in selecting persons to be interviewed at random. Quota sampling involves selecting a sample of people which is representative of the population in terms of age, occupation, sex, region and so on. ■

  8. Before Reading_3.2.1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading 2. State Regents’ examinations 1) New York State 2) High school students 3) Examinations made out by regents 4) Not replace final exam 5) Pass score — 65

  9. Before Reading_3.2.2 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading In the state of New York, the Department of Education requires that high school students take year-end examinations in science, math, and language subjects. A regent is a member of a board appointed to govern educational institutions. In New York, the regents make out these required examinations. The regents’ exam does not replace the final examination. It is a secure test, meaning that other than the regents themselves, no one, not even the teachers, is supposed to see the examinations prior to their administration. The exams are mostly multiple choice questions, though students may be required to write a short essay or solve math problems. A score of 65 is required to pass the exam, the top score being 100. ■

  10. Before Reading_3.3 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading 3. Income taxes The US has had income tax laws since 1913. Income tax is a tax on the wages, salaries, profits, interest and rent received by a taxpayer within a definite period of time. In the US approximately one quarter of a middle class family’s earnings goes to the government through the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) in the form of taxes; in Great Britain about one third of a middle class family’s income goes to taxes.

  11. Before Reading_3.4.1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading 4. Competency tests

  12. Before Reading_3.4.2 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Competency tests are used to determine whether or not a person possesses a certain skill to do something, as opposed to a proficiency test which determines how well a person can do something. A competency test is a pass / fail test, the point being not to achieve an exceptional score, but merely to pass it. Usually a competency test is set in reading and basic math computations, not in all subject areas. Sometimes students must pass competency tests at the end of each academic year to let the school authorities determine whether they are capable of doing work at their grade level. Recently a growing number of states in the US are requiring students to pass a competency test before receiving a high school diploma; if one fails the test, one receives a high school certificate which amounts to little more than a statement that one attended school. ■

  13. Before Reading_4.1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading An Opinion Poll Directions: Ask students to do the poll about their attitude towards test and test taking, then analyze the statistics within big groups and the leader of each group gives a report with a conclusion. • 1. In your opinion, tests or exams are______. • A) helpful • B) not very useful • C) trying • D) trying but necessary • 2. Before a major test you usually feel ______. • A) at ease • B) excited • C) worried • D) nervous

  14. Before Reading_4.2 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading 3. — How often do you review your lessons? — I review my lessons ______. A) regularly B) when I feel like reviewing C) seldom D) only when there is a test 4. When you are preparing yourself for a major test, ______. A) you work hard with a view to making a thorough study of the subject concerned B) you prefer to take it easy but make sure to get a pass or better than pass grade C) you rely much on the hints the teacher gives you D) you keep on inquiring about it in every possible way 5. While taking a major test you usually are ______. A) calm and careful B) too excited to think carefully C) casual about your answers D) so nervous as to feel at a loss

  15. Before Reading_4.3 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading 6. When you have difficulty answering a question, ______. A) you keep on trying on your own B) you give it up after having a try C) you wish you could get help from your classmates D) you manage to obtain some help anyhow 7. When your classmates ask for help during a test, ______. A) you always give a flat refusal B) you often pretend not to have noticed it C) you are always ready to help any one of them D) you have no idea how to handle the situation because you have not had such experience 8. You think that cheating on exams is ______. A) dishonest B) tolerable C) unavoidable D) objectionable in principle

  16. Before Reading_4.4 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading 9. The main cause of cheating on exam is, in your opinion, ______. A) that exams are unreasonably difficult B) that those who cheat want very much to get better grades C) that they are afraid to fail D) too mysterious and subtle for you to understand 10. When taking a test, you believe in the saying ______. A) “Honesty is the best policy.” B) “Man proposes, God disposes.” C) “Accept it as it is.” D) “The end justifies the means.” Tips for Presentation: 1. Expression of percentage: xx%, xx% out of xx, most of us, few of us, none of us 2. Expression of opinions: we all agree / think / believe/ hold the opinion that…

  17. Globe Reading_main Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading 1. Part Division of the Text 2. Discourse Analysis 3. Skimming 4. Supplying the Missing Information

  18. Globe Reading1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Part Division of the Text Parts Lines Main Ideas 1 1 — 18 Cheating may be on the rise. 2 19 — 32 Actions taken and reaction. 3 Reactions: Why there was less cheating in “the good old days”? 33 — 67 4 68 — 79 Suggestions: Ways to help students gain confidence.

  19. Globe Reading2.1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Discourse Analysis The text is an argumentative writing in style. The author presents sufficient evidence of valid reasons, examples, strong contrasts, etc. to support his idea that dishonesty is increasing in America, but honesty is still an important part of the national character. 1. How to support a statement? statistics, examples, analysis, counter-argument, analogy, etc. 2. Find the supporting sentences in each part according to the topic sentences given.

  20. Globe Reading2.2 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading For Part 1: Recent poll: 61% American high school students ever cheated. A case in point: New York State charge. Students buy prewritten term papers.

  21. Globe Reading2.3 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading For Part 2: Campaign at the University of Maryland.

  22. Globe Reading2.4 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading For Part 3: George Washington’s cherry tree — honesty was seen as an important part of the American character. No fun stories, but ones about morality. Abe Lincoln’s penny — small social circle. More signs today — more likely to reveal dishonesty.

  23. Globe Reading2.5 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading For Part 4: Theft and cheating. Educators’ finding. Defiant students.

  24. Globe Reading3 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Skimming Skim the passage and find the information about “the good old days”. Characteristics: People were better, happier and more honest. Evidence: The stories of Lincoln and Washington. Reasons: Education — virtues are emphasized in schools. Life style — life is less complicated. (no income taxes) Better communication — people know each other better. Comparatively low ability in revealing dishonesty. Economic conditions.

  25. ______ ___________________ _________ ________ _________________________________ _________ Globe Reading4.1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Supplying the Missing Information Read the text carefully and supply the missing information to complete the following sentences. 1. In order to receive their high school diplomas, students in many states . 2. Since many students buy prewritten term papers, several professor have given up . 3. “Ringers” are those . In order to catch “ringers”, the Department of Psychology at the University of Maryland . 4. Quite a few readers don’t know that was invented by the first biographer of Washington. have to pass competency tests _______________________________ the traditional term paper requirement ___________________________ who take tests for other students launched a campaign the story of George Washington and the cherry tree

  26. __________ ________________________________. ____________ ____________________________ ____ ____________________ Globe Reading4.2 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading 5. In the 19th century, from the stories they read students knew that 6. It is reasonable that we see more signs of dishonesty because . 7. Overall, dishonesty has a close relationship with times. , incidents of theft and cheating usually go down. 8. If a person feels the trust from the others, he / she is cheat. To our surprise, it turns out that a person may be tempted to cheat if he / she . children who lied, cheated, or stole came to bad ends we are getting better at revealing such dishonesty __________________ When times are good __________ less likely to is prevented from doing so

  27. Article Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Ever thought about cheating on a test? Of course not. But some students are not quite so honest ...

  28. Article1_S Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading HONESTY: IS IT GOING OUT OF STYLE? Stacia Robbins According to a recent poll, 61 percent of American high school students have admitted to cheating on exams at least once. It can be argued such a response may not mean much. After all, most students have been faced with the temptation to peek at a neighbor’s test paper. And students can be hard on themselves in judging such behavior. However, there are other indications that high school cheating may be on the rise. More and more states are requiring students to pass competency tests in order to receive their high school diplomas. And many educators fear that an increase in the use of state exams will lead to a corresponding rise in cheating. A case in point is students in New York State who faced criminal misdemeanor charges for possessing and selling advance copies of state Regents examinations.

  29. Article2_S Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Cheating is now considered to be a major problem in colleges and universities. Several professors say they’ve dropped the traditional term paper requirement because many students buy prewritten term papers, and they can’t track down all the cheaters anymore. Colleges and universities across the nation have decided to do more than talk about the rise in student cheating.For instance, the Department of Psychology at the University of Maryland launched a campaign to stop one form of cheating.As 409 students filed out of their exam, they found all but one exit blocked. Proctors asked each student to produce an ID card with an attached photo. Students who said they’d left theirs in the dorm or at home had a mug shot taken. The purpose of the campaign was to catch “ringers”, students who take tests for other students.

  30. Article3_S Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading The majority of students at the University of Maryland applauded the campaign. The campus newspaper editorial said, “Like police arresting speeders, the intent is not to catch everyone but rather to catch enough to spread the word.” We frequently hear about “the good old days”, when Americans were better, happier, and more honest. But were they more honest? Maybe yes, a long time ago when life was very different from what it is today.

  31. Article4_S Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading School children used to know the story of how Abraham Lincoln walked five miles to return a penny he’d overcharged a customer. It’s the kind of story we think of as myth. But in the case of Lincoln, the story is true ... unlike the story of George Washington and the cherry tree. Washington’s first biographer invented the tale of little George saying to his father, “I cannot tell a lie. I did it with my ax.” What is important in both stories, however, is that honesty was seen as an important part of the American character.

  32. Article5_S Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading And these are just two stories out of many. Students in the last century usually didn’t read “fun” stories. They read stories that taught moral values. Such stories pointed out quite clearly that children who lied, cheated, or stole came to bad ends. Parents may have further reinforced those values. It’s difficult to know. We do know that children didn’t hear their parents talk of cheating the government on income taxes — there weren’t any. A clue as to why Americans may have been more honest in the past lies in the Abe Lincoln story. Lincoln knew his customer. They both lived in a small town. Would a check-out person at a large supermarket return money to a customer? It’s less likely. On the other hand, would overnight guests at an inn run by a husband and wife, steal towels? It’s less likely.

  33. Article6_S Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Perhaps this tells us that people need to know one another to be at their honest best. The vast majority of Americans still believe that honesty is an important part of the American character. For that reason, there are numerous watch-dog committees at all levels of society. Although signs of dishonesty in school, business, and government seem much more numerous in recent years than in the past, could it be that we are getting better at revealing such dishonesty? There is some evidence that dishonesty may ebb and flow. When times are hard, incidents of theft and cheating usually go up. And when times get better such incidents tend to go down.

  34. Article7_S Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Cheating in school also tends to ebb and flow. But it doesn’t seem linked to the economy. Many educators feel that as students gain confidence in themselves and their abilities, they are less likely to cheat. Surprisingly, some efforts to prevent cheating may actually encourage cheating — a person may feel “they don’t trust me anyway,” and be tempted to “beat the system”. Distrust can be contagious. But, so can trust!

  35. Article1_W Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading HONESTY: IS IT GOING OUT OF STYLE? Stacia Robbins According to a recent poll, 61 percent of American high school students have admitted to cheating on exams at least once. It can be argued such a response may not mean much. After all, most students have been faced with the temptation to peek at a neighbor’s test paper. And students can be hard on themselves in judging such behavior. However, there are other indications that high school cheating may be on the rise. More and more states are requiring students to pass competency tests in order to receive their high school diplomas. And many educators fear that an increase in the use of state exams will lead to a corresponding rise in cheating. A case in point is students in New York State who faced criminal misdemeanor charges for possessing and selling advance copies of state Regents examinations.

  36. Article2_W Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Cheating is now considered to be a major problem in colleges and universities. Several professors say they’ve dropped the traditional term paper requirement because many students buy prewritten term papers, and they can’t track down all the cheaters anymore. Colleges and universities across the nation have decided to do more than talk about the rise in student cheating. For instance, the Department of Psychology at the University of Maryland launched a campaign to stop one form of cheating. As 409 students filed out of their exam, they found all but one exit blocked. Proctors asked each student to produce an ID card with an attached photo. Students who said they’d left theirs in the dorm or at home had a mug shot taken. The purpose of the campaign was to catch “ringers”, students who take tests for other students.

  37. Article3_W Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading The majority of students at the University of Maryland applauded the campaign. The campus newspaper editorial said, “Like police arresting speeders, the intent is not to catch everyone but rather to catch enough to spread the word.” We frequently hear about “the good old days”, when Americans were better, happier, and more honest. But were they more honest? Maybe yes, a long time ago when life was very different from what it is today.

  38. Article4_W Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading School children used to know the story of how Abraham Lincoln walked five miles to return a penny he’d overcharged a customer. It’s the kind of story we think of as myth. But in the case of Lincoln, the story is true ... unlike the story of George Washington and the cherry tree. Washington’s first biographer invented the tale of little George saying to his father, “I cannot tell a lie. I did it with my ax.” What is important in both stories, however, is that honesty was seen as an important part of the American character.

  39. Article5_W Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading And these are just two stories out of many. Students in the last century usually didn’t read “fun” stories. They read stories that taught moral values. Such stories pointed out quite clearly that children who lied, cheated, or stole came to bad ends. Parents may have further reinforced those values. It’s difficult to know. We do know that children didn’t hear their parents talk of cheating the government on income taxes — there weren’t any. A clue as to why Americans may have been more honest in the past lies in the Abe Lincoln story. Lincoln knew his customer. They both lived in a small town. Would a check-out person at a large supermarket return money to a customer? It’s less likely. On the other hand, would overnight guests at an inn run by a husband and wife, steal towels? It’s less likely.

  40. Article6_W Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Perhaps this tells us that people need to know one another to be at their honest best. The vast majority of Americans still believe that honesty is an important part of the American character. For that reason, there are numerous watch-dog committees at all levels of society. Although signs of dishonesty in school, business, and government seem much more numerous in recent years than in the past, could it be that we are getting better at revealing such dishonesty? There is some evidence that dishonesty may ebb and flow. When times are hard, incidents of theft and cheating usually go up. And when times get better such incidents tend to go down.

  41. Article7_W Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Cheating in school also tends to ebb and flow. But it doesn’t seem linked to the economy. Many educators feel that as students gain confidence in themselves and their abilities, they are less likely to cheat. Surprisingly, some efforts to prevent cheating may actually encourage cheating — a person may feel “they don’t trust me anyway,” and be tempted to “beat the system”. Distrust can be contagious. But, so can trust!

  42. Article1_S1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading HONESTY: IS IT GOING OUT OF STYLE? Stacia Robbins According to a recent poll, 61 percent of American high school students have admitted to cheating on exams at least once. It can be argued such a response may not mean much. After all, most students have been faced with the temptation to peek at a neighbor’s test paper. And students can be hard on themselves in judging such behavior. However, there are other indications that high school cheating may be on the rise. 1. Paraphrase the sentence. Some people may have a good reason to say that such a response from high school students may not be significant. 2. Translate the sentence into Chinese. 人们可以争论说,这样一种回答也许没有多大意义。 More and more states are requiring students to pass competency tests in order to receive their high school diplomas. And many educators fear that an increase in the use of state exams will lead to a corresponding rise in cheating. A case in point is students in New York State who faced criminal misdemeanor charges for possessing and selling advance copies of state Regents examinations.

  43. Article2_S1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Cheating is now considered to be a major problem in colleges and universities. Several professors say they’ve dropped the traditional term paper requirement because many students buy prewritten term papers, and they can’t track down all the cheaters anymore. Colleges and universities across the nation have decided to do more than talk about the rise in student cheating.For instance, the Department of Psychology at the University of Maryland launched a campaign to stop one form of cheating.As How do you understand “across the nation” and “to do more than talk”? The first one means “throughout the country.” The second one means “to do something instead of talking.” 409 students filed out of their exam, they found all but one exit blocked. Proctors asked each student to produce an ID card with an attached photo. Students who said they’d left theirs in the dorm or at home had a mug shot taken. The purpose of the campaign was to catch “ringers”, students who take tests for other students.

  44. Article2_S2 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Cheating is now considered to be a major problem in colleges and universities. Several professors say they’ve dropped the traditional term paper requirement because many students buy prewritten term papers, and they can’t track down all the cheaters anymore. Colleges and universities across the nation have decided to do more than talk about the rise in student cheating.For instance, the Department of Psychology at the University of Maryland launched a campaign to stop one form of cheating.As 1. What did the Department of Psychology do? It started a series of activities to stop cheating. 2. What can be inferred from this sentence as to the cheating on campus? It has become a very serious problem and challenge to the university, therefore actions should be taken. 409 students filed out of their exam, they found all but one exit blocked. Proctors asked each student to produce an ID card with an attached photo. Students who said they’d left theirs in the dorm or at home had a mug shot taken. The purpose of the campaign was to catch “ringers”, students who take tests for other students.

  45. Article2_S3 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Cheating is now considered to be a major problem in colleges and universities. Several professors say they’ve dropped the traditional term paper requirement because many students buy prewritten term papers, and they can’t track down all the cheaters anymore. Colleges and universities across the nation have decided to do more than talk about the rise in student cheating.For instance, the Department of Psychology at the University of Maryland launched a campaign to stop one form of cheating.As 1. How did the students leave? They left the exam hall or room in a single file, i.e., one by one. 2. How many exits were left open? 409 students filed out of their exam, they found all but one exit blocked. Proctors asked each student to produce an ID card with an attached photo. Students who said they’d left theirs in the dorm or at home had a mug shot taken. The purpose of the campaign was to catch “ringers”, students who take tests for other students. Only one.

  46. Article2_S4 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Cheating is now considered to be a major problem in colleges and universities. Several professors say they’ve dropped the traditional term paper requirement because many students buy prewritten term papers, and they can’t track down all the cheaters anymore. Colleges and universities across the nation have decided to do more than talk about the rise in student cheating.For instance, the Department of Psychology at the University of Maryland launched a campaign to stop one form of cheating.As 1. What does “mug” mean? “Mug” is a slangy word for “face”, as in the sentence “You have got an ugly mug.” 2. Where is “a mug shot” used? It is used on the driver’s license, university ID card, etc. It may be taken by police for purposes of identification. 409 students filed out of their exam, they found all but one exit blocked. Proctors asked each student to produce an ID card with an attached photo. Students who said they’d left theirs in the dorm or at home had a mug shot taken. The purpose of the campaign was to catch “ringers”, students who take tests for other students.

  47. Article3_S1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading The majority of students at the University of Maryland applauded the campaign. The campus newspaper editorial said, “Like police arresting speeders, the intent is not to catch everyone but rather to catch enough to spread the word.” We frequently hear about “the good old days”, when Americans were better, happier, and more honest. But were they more honest? Maybe yes, a long time ago when life was very different from what it is today. 1. Who are “speeders”? “Speeders” are those who drive faster than the posted speed limit. 2. As far as you know, when will police arrest speeders? If a person were driving in great excess of the speed limit, the police might arrest him and put him in jail. Generally the police do not arrest speeders; they are given traffic tickets which require the speeding offenders to pay a fine.

  48. Article3_S2 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading The majority of students at the University of Maryland applauded the campaign. The campus newspaper editorial said, “Like police arresting speeders, the intent is not to catch everyone but rather to catch enough to spread the word.” We frequently hear about “the good old days”, when Americans were better, happier, and more honest. But were they more honest? Maybe yes, a long time ago when life was very different from what it is today. 1. How do you understand this part? …the intention is not to catch all of the cheats, but to catch a sufficient number of them for the purpose of giving a warning to other students: if a few are caught, the other students will hear about it and be deterred from cheating. 2. Translate this part into Chinese. 这一运动的目的并不是要捉拿所有的人,而是抓住足够的作弊者以便把信息传开去。

  49. Article5_S1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading And these are just two stories out of many. Students in the last century usually didn’t read “fun” stories. They read stories that taught moral values. Such stories pointed out quite clearly that children who lied, cheated, or stole came to bad ends. Parents may have further reinforced those values. It’s difficult to know. We do know that children didn’t hear their parents talk of cheating the government on income taxes — there weren’t any. 1. What are “fun” stories? They are humorous stories read for amusement. 2. What is the intent of “fun” stories? The intent is usually to entertain rather than to educate. A clue as to why Americans may have been more honest in the past lies in the Abe Lincoln story. Lincoln knew his customer. They both lived in a small town. Would a check-out person at a large supermarket return money to a customer? It’s less likely. On the other hand, would overnight guests at an inn run by a husband and wife, steal towels? It’s less likely.

  50. Article6_S1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Perhaps this tells us that people need to know one another to be at their honest best. The vast majority of Americans still believe that honesty is an important part of the American character. For that reason, there are numerous watch-dog committees at all levels of society. Although signs of dishonesty in school, business, and government seem much more numerous in recent years than in the past, could it be that we are getting better at revealing such dishonesty? 1. What does the phrase “at their honest best” mean? It means “at their best as far as honesty is concerned”. 2. How do you understand this sentence? People need to know one another well if they are to treat one another as honestly as possible. There is some evidence that dishonesty may ebb and flow. When times are hard, incidents of theft and cheating usually go up. And when times get better such incidents tend to go down.