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Learning Targets

Learning Targets

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Learning Targets

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  1. Learning Targets I can: • Define the key terms of precedent and cabinet • Identify 2 key precedents Washington Established • Compare and Contrast Washington’s position as President vs. Monarchs and Dictators. • Create a chart of the Key advisors that served in Washington’s cabinet and their roles.

  2. Pre-assessment 1.Define A. Precedent B. Cabinet 2. Name two traditions established by Washington during his presidency.

  3. 3. List two differences between a president and a Monarch/Dictator. 4. Identify the roles of advisors to the President Washington.

  4. Chapter 9 Notes: Launching a New Republic GW, you’re my hero! It’s About Time!

  5. Washington Takes Office • Inaugurated (sworn in) on April 30th, 1789 • At Federal Hall in NYC • Washington D.C. is not the capital yet • Capital=city Capitol=building

  6. Washington Takes Office • Washington’s presidency would set a precedent- an example that would become standard practice • Once president, Washington goes right to work forming the new American government exactly the way he wants

  7. Federal Judiciary Act • Establishes the Supreme Court • John Jay named 1st Chief Justice

  8. Setting Up the Courts • Congress passes the Federal Judiciary Act (1789) • Gives Supreme Court six members • 1 Chief Justice or Judge • 5 Associate Judges • The number of Judges later grows to nine • Act also provides for lower federal courts • John Jay is named Chief Justice

  9. Created a Cabinet • Secretary of War • Henry Knox • Nation’s Defenses

  10. Created a Cabinet • Secretary of State • Thomas Jefferson • Relationships with other countries

  11. Created a Cabinet • Secretary of the Treasury • Alexander Hamilton • Manage the Government’s Money

  12. Created a Cabinet • Attorney General • Edmund Randolph • Legal Matters I LOVE the Virginiaplan!

  13. Economic Problems • National Debt= $52 million • Left over from Rev. War • Costs of setting up new government • If new nation doesn’t pay its debts, it will lose credibility in the world

  14. Hamilton’s Financial Plan(Also Known As: How To Get Out Of Debt!) • 1. Pay off all war debts as soon as possible • 2. Raise government revenue WITHOUT raising taxes • 3. Create a national bank to oversee money and policy

  15. Hamilton’s Plan Provoked Mixed Reactions: 1. Southern states had already paid off their share of the Rev. War debt and did NOT want to have to pay again! 2. Tariffs- taxes on foreign goods imported into America- idea was to raise $ for government and promote American industry

  16. Hamilton’s Plan Provoked Mixed Reactions: 3. National Bank- • Safe place for government’s $$ • Loans to businesses and states • Would print/coin first National currency

  17. Hamilton’s Plan Greatly Strengthened the Federal Government’s Power! • This worried Thomas Jefferson and James Madison! We are getting stronger!

  18. Did the Constitution Allow For A National Bank??? • It does not say anything specific about allowing a National Bank…. • BUT: It doesn’t really say it isn’t OK either!

  19. Washington Retires- 2 Statements: • Avoid party politics at all costs! -only leads to fighting 2) Foreign policy- stay neutral and out of other countries business

  20. Post-assessment 1.Define A. Precedent B. Cabinet 2. Name two traditions established by Washington during his presidency.

  21. 3. List two differences between a president and a Monarch/Dictator. 4. Identify the roles of advisors to the President Washington.

  22. The French Revolution • The French Revolution, which began in 1789, • Initially supported by the U.S., • French declared war on Great Britain • revolution became excessively brutal • U.S. claimed neutrality on the issue.

  23. Jay’s Treaty • Under Jay’s Treaty Britain abandoned the Ohio River Valley • Britain paid reparations for American ships captured during its war with France.

  24. Pinckney’s Treaty with Spain opened up the port of New Orleans and travel along the Mississippi River to Americans. Pinckney’s Treaty

  25. Thomas Pinckney

  26. Section 3: The Federalists in Charge Washington’s cabinet members argued over a number of issues: 1)How to interpret the Constitution? -loose vs. strict 2)Hamilton’s creation of a National Bank -necessary or too much power? 3)Who to side with in the war between Britain and France? -ally or trading partner? 4)What kind of a nation would the U.S. be? -world power, leader or mind own business?

  27. Loose Construction of the Constitution: • Anything not specifically prohibited is OK! • Necessary and Proper Clause • Strict Construction of the Constitution: • Government can only do exactly what the Constitution says and no more!

  28. The Formation of Political Parties • A political party tries to influence government policy by promoting its ideas • Have a lot of power in American government despite not being mentioned in the Constitution • Began separating over the issue of strict vs. loose interpretation of the Constitution • Federalists vs. Democratic-Republicans

  29. Election of 1796 • John Adams elected president • Thomas Jefferson, his rival and runner-up in the election is vice-president • U.S. Capital moves to Washington D.C.

  30. XYZ Affair • Alliance with France breaks down • Adams sends representatives to try and talk to France • Three French agents “X,Y, and Z” say that they will talk but only if the U.S. gives France $10 million and a $250,000 bribe to the French minister of foreign affairs • Leads to the end of the U.S./French alliance

  31. Alien and Sedition Acts • Many people thought John Adams was becoming too powerful • Federalist Congress passes laws: • Increased waiting period to become a citizen • President could arrest “disloyal” aliens • Sedition (saying anything false or harmful about the government) is outlawed • Did this take away freedom of speech??? I HATE Federalists!

  32. States Rights • Democratic-Republicans led by Jefferson and Madison fought back • States’ rights theory says that a state could nullify (cancel out) any federal law they felt violated the Constitution within their state • Challenged the authority of the National government and led to Jefferson’s election

  33. Objective: To analyze the differences between the first political parties. Alexander Hamilton Thomas Jefferson Federalists Democratic - Republicans

  34. Hamilton and Jefferson: Differing Views Alexander Hamilton Thomas Jefferson • Favored farmers and rural communities • Favored trade, manufacturing and cities • Believed that the federal government should have more power than the states • Believed that states should have more power than the federal government (state’s rights) • Believed in a loose interpretation of the Constitution • Believed in a strict interpretation of the Constitution • was pro-British • was pro-French

  35. First Political Parties Federalists Democratic Republicans • led by Alexander Hamilton • led by Thomas Jefferson • strong central government led by industry and the wealthy • strong state governments led by the “common man” • emphasis on agriculture • “Cultivators of the earth are the most valuable citizens.” – Thomas Jefferson • emphasis on manufacturing, shipping, and trade • loose interpretation of the Constitution • strict interpretation of the Constitution • favored the national bank • opposed the national bank • favored protective tariffs • opposed protective tariffs • pro-British • pro-French