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Lesson One. الدرس الأول. Topics: What is Speech? The Parts of Speech The Gender of Nouns in Arabic Proper Nouns (Names) The Demonstrative Pronoun ( اسم الإشارة ) Constructing simple sentences with “This / that is a …” Asking and answering simple questions:

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Lesson One

الدرس الأول

Topics:

What is Speech?

The Parts of Speech

The Gender of Nouns in Arabic

Proper Nouns (Names)

The Demonstrative Pronoun (اسم الإشارة)

Constructing simple sentences with “This / that is a …”

Asking and answering simple questions:

“Who is this / that?” and “What is this / that?”

Also, “Is this / that a …?” Answering with “yes” or “no”.

speech may be defined as a combination of words that convey a complete meaning
Speech may be defined as a combination of words that convey a complete meaning.

What is Speech?

In Arabic Speech is أَلْكَلاَمُ. Learning a language is all about understanding speech and producing speech in that language.

Thus, speech is composed of at least two words, and it must make sense.

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Which of the following is Speech?

5. Allah is the Greatest.

6. Fear Allah!

7. Eat!

8. Eating too fast.

9. Stop!

10. Those who do good.

1. Praise be to Allah!

2. Muhammad is the messenger of Allah.

3. Men and women who fear Allah.

4. The pious are those who fear Allah.

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Speech, in Arabic, is also called

الْجُمْلَةُ الْمُفِيدَةُ

i.e. the sentence that conveys

a useful meaning.

What are the Parts of Speech?

أَجْزَاءُالْجُمْلَةِ

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أَجْزَاءُالْجُمْلَةِ

The Parts of Speech

In Arabic, there are three parts of speech. They are

اَلاِسْمُNoun

اَلْفِعْلُVerb

اَلْحَرْفُParticle

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اَلاِسْمُ

The Noun

It is any word that refers to a person, animal, plant, thing or idea. Thus, it includes what in English are nouns, pronouns and adjectives.

For example:

قِطٌّ

بِنْتٌ

وَلَدٌ

هِيَ

هُوَ

Cat

Girl

Boy

She

He

صَغِيرٌ

كَبِيرٌ

قَلَمٌ

كِتَابٌ

وَرْدَةٌ

Small

Big

A pen

A book

A rose

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The Verb

اَلْفِعْلُ

It is any word that shows an action being performed at a specific time, past, present or future. E.g.

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اَلْحَرْفُ

The Particle

It is any word that cannot stand on its own, but needs a noun or a verb to support it. It includes what in English are prepositions, conjunctions and interjections. E.g.

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The gender of nouns

In Arabic there are two genders, masculine and feminine. Feminine nouns end with ةwhile masculine nouns do not.

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The gender of non-living things

Non-living things are either masculine or feminine. E.g.

المؤنث Fem.

المذكر Mas.

a ruler

مِسْطَرَةٌ

a book

كِتَابٌ

a car

سَيَّارَةٌ

a pen

قَلَمٌ

a watch

سَاعَةٌ

a chair

كُرْسِيٌّ

a school

مَدْرَسَةٌ

a desk

مَكْتَبٌ

a room

غُرْفَةٌ

a door

بَابٌ

a window

نَافِذَةٌ

a house

بَيْتٌ

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Read these words and give their meanings

سَاعَةٌ

قَلَمٌ

كُرْسِيٌّ

سَيَّارَةٌ

بَيْتٌ

مَدْرَسَةٌ

بَابٌ

كِتَابٌ

نَافِذَةٌ

مَكْتَبٌ

مِسْطَرَةٌ

غُرْفَةٌ

إِمْرَأَةٌ

صَدِيقٌ

طَالِبَةٌ

مُدَرِّسٌ

صَدِيقَةٌ

مُدَرِّسَةٌ

رَجُلٌ

زَوْجٌ

بِنْتٌ

وَلَدٌ

زَوْجَةٌ

طَالِبٌ

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Give the Arabic for these words

a student (f)

a school

a desk

a house

a friend (f)

a room

a door

a window

a teacher (f)

a chair

a car

a ruler

a woman

a man

a teacher (m)

a book

a student (m)

a husband

a pen

a girl

a wife

a friend (m)

a watch

a boy

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Exceptions to the rule of

ة

Some nouns that refer to female persons do not end with ة.

Here are the corresponding masculine nouns.

Some nouns that refer to male persons end with ة. E.g.

Note: Words such as دَاعِيَةٌ and عَلاَّمَةٌ are common to males and females.

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ة

Feminine Nouns without

Some common everyday words which do not have ة are feminine by usage. Eg.

Also, body parts that come in pairs are feminine. Eg.

Body parts that are single are masculine, unless they have ة Eg.

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اَلْعَلَمُ

Proper Nouns

Proper nouns are names. Feminine names usually have ةwhile masculine names do not. E.g.

Below are some exceptions to the above rule.

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اِسْمُ الإِشَارَةِ

The Demonstrative Pronoun

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اِسْمُ الإِشَارَةِ

The Demonstrative Pronoun

Exercise:Read the following words with هٰذَاorهٰذِهِbefore them, then translate into English

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اِسْمُ الإِشَارَةِ

The Demonstrative Pronoun

Exercise:Read the following words with ذٰلِكَorتِلْكَbefore them, then translate into English.

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اِسْمُ الإِشَارَةِ

The Demonstrative Pronoun

Exercise:Read these words with “هٰذَا” or “هٰذِهِ” then translate.

Exercise:Read these words with “ذٰلِكَ” or “تِلْكَ” then translate.

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Who is this?

Who is that?

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What is this?

What is that?

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Exercise

Point to one of these pictures and ask your friend in Arabic “Who is this?” or “What is this?” Take turns asking and answering.

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Is this a ...?

The particle أَ changes a statement into a question.

Another way of asking “is this a book?” هَلْ هَذَا كِتَابٌ؟

The particle هَلْ also changes a statement into a question.

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Exercise

Point to a picture and ask each other in Arabic

“Is this a …?” Take turns asking and answering.