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*"Covered Roadways in Urban Settings - Reflections of a Structural Engineer" . Harry A Capers, Jr. P.E. . Issues of structural engineering related to public policy specifically dealing with context sensitive design issues in the design of structures.
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Harry A Capers, Jr. P.E.
Focus will be on individual experiences during the planning, design and construction of two urban covered roadway projects built in new jersey around 2000.
Comments will reflect concept development, planning of the project, funding issues and determination of architectural and structural schemeTopics to be discussed
Outcomes - core principles about CSS product and process that can be applied to both project implementation and evaluation.
The definition of css was defined by
"qualities that characterize excellence in transportation design,"
"characteristics of the process that yield excellence."
These "qualities" and "characteristics" are goals for any css project, and can also be used as evaluation criteria upon its completion.Core Principles of CSS
The project is a safe facility for both the user and the community.
The project is in harmony with the community, and it preserves environmental, scenic, aesthetic, historic, and natural resource values of the area, i.e., exhibits context sensitive design.
The project exceeds the expectations of both designers and stakeholders and achieves a level of excellence in people's minds.
The project involves efficient and effective use of the resources (time, budget, community) of all involved parties.
The project is designed and built with minimal disruption to the community.
The project is seen as having added lasting value to the community."Qualities that Characterize Excellence in Transportation Design"
A multidisciplinary team is established early, with disciplines based on the needs of the specific project, and with the inclusion of the public.
A full range of stakeholders is involved with transportation officials in the scoping phase. The purposes of the project are clearly defined, and consensus on the scope is forged before proceeding.
The highway development process is tailored to meet the circumstances. This process should examine multiple alternatives that will result in a consensus of approach methods.
A commitment to the process from top agency officials and local leaders is secured.
The public involvement process, which includes informal meetings, is tailored to the project.
The landscape, the community, and valued resources are understood before engineering design is started. A full range of tools for communication about project alternatives is used (e.g., visualization).The Characteristics of the Process that will Yield Excellence in Transportation Design"
116,000 cubic yards structural concrete
74,000 tons asphalt pavement
7,400 linear feet AASHTO bridge girders
1,060 tons bridge structural steel
7,300 tons sheetpile shoring
4,330 tons excavation steel bracing
580,000 cubic yards excavation
650,000 cubic yards embankment
50,000 square feet MSE walls
17,000,000 pounds rebar
20,000 linear feet reinforced concrete pipe
24,840 linear feet permanent concrete barrier rail
630,000 square feet waterproofingWork Items:
The low bid of $190,595,000 was submitted by Yonkers Contracting Company/Granite Construction Company in association with URS Grenier Consultants, Golder Associates, and Schlessinger Associates.
Bids of $229,775,000 from Perini Corporation/Slattery Associates in association with E.E. Cruz & Co., and Howard Needles Tammen and Bergendoff,
Bids of $329,710,000 from Schiavone Construction Co./Buckley & Company, Inc./Parsons Transportation Group in association with Gannett Fleming, Converse Consultants East, and Parsons Engineering ScienceBids Received On A.C./Brigantine Connector Project
$65 million was donated from the Casino Reinvestment Development Authority
$60 million was donated from the SJTA.
The project permited the development of Marina lands, which when combined with the roadway construction, were estimated to have generated 63,000 construction and supply industry jobs and 33,000 other related jobs. Three proposed casinos slated to be developed on Marina lands were estimated to generate 16,500 permanent jobs and result in $275 million a year in new state and local tax revenues.
Borgata opened shortly after the roadway was completedFunding
The contractor installed a system of 100 deep wells within the tight interlocking steel sheeting that was driven to a 60-foot depth to provide a partial groundwater cut-off. The installed dewatering system provided dry sub grade down to elevation –30 for a period of 16 months. The project was completed with no interruption in groundwater lowering or subsequent excavation and structural work. No settlement was experienced.Design/Build DewateringProgram for the BrigantineConnector, Atlantic City, NJ
The Atlantic City-Brigantine Connector has four 12-foot-wide lanes (two lanes in each direction), with each carriageway separated by a three-foot-high concrete ("Jersey") barrier. There are no shoulders along the section near Brigantine Boulevard, and limited-width shoulders on the elevated section and in the tunnel itself (only on the curves).
In order to have the ramps for Bacharach Boulevard placed without having steep grades from either the Atlantic City Expressway or the Marina Tunnel, a two-track railroad grade crossing was constructed at this location. Advance warning signals alert motorists of trains approximately one-quarter mile before the crossing. Nevertheless, one pro-transit group, the Delaware Valley Association of Rail Passengers, raised questions about the railroad crossing located near the Atlantic City-New Jersey Transit rail terminal.
$15 Million for Deck Park
Contractor: Joint Venture Company:PKF Mark III/NCI joint venture
Client: New Jersey Dept. of TransportationRoute 29 Waterfront ImprovementsTrenton, Mercer County
Lamberton Street connected State Route 29, primarily a four- to six-lane freeway running along the Delaware River, with Interstate 295.
In the mid-1990s, the New Jersey Department of Transportation recognized that the situation was unacceptable from the traffic, environmental and human perspective, and undertook the Route 29 tunnel and its companion deck park project to ensure efficient traffic operations and improve the quality of life in the area.Project Need
Signs will direct bicyclists and pedestrians to other waterfront amenities.
Will link to the Trenton Marriott Hotel,
the Heritage Trails to the Philadelphia East Coast Greenway to Newark,
the capital to coast connecting the shore trails to the east and
the Delaware & Raritan Canal to Lambertville/New Hope to the north.Bike Path
Harry A. Capers, Jr. PE
Office of Transportation Security
International Technology Scanning Program
Highway Research Program
American Association of State
Highway and Transportation Officials
Federal Highway Administration
NFPA 130 Standard for Fixed Guideway Transit and Passenger Rail Systems
NFPA 502 Standard for Road Tunnels, Bridges, and Other Limited Access Highways
No AASHTO Standards existCurrent US Practice
September 23 – October 9, 2005
Widespread uniformity promotes understanding.
In an incident, confusion is minimized.
Use of combined senses (visual, audible, tactile) increases effectiveness.
U.S - National Fire Protection Association codes should include human factors considerations.Findings - 1
in Mont Blanc Tunnel
“This committee is concerned with all factors pertinent to the design and construction of highway tunnels and their components, including design, construction, inspection, maintenance, and security, including designing for and responding to manmade and natural hazards. Highway tunnels as recognized by this committee include covered roadways confined on both edges equal to or greater than ? feet in length along centerline of roadway regardless of type of structure or method of construction.”T-20 Technical Committee on Tunnels - Scope
Coordination with other AASHTO Committees as necessary on cross cut issues.
Deployment of and AASHTO approved Highway Tunnel Management System.
Identification of research needs and development, review of and recommend for committee consideration research problem statements related to highway tunnels.
Represent the SCOBS as necessary to other agencies on matters pertaining to highway tunnels.T-20 Technical Committee on Tunnels - Responsibilities
- Human Factors
Behavior hard to predict during emergency.
People are their own first rescuers.
People must react correctly and quickly.
Guidelines must account for this human behavior.
Guidelines should be included in tunnel planning, design, and emergency response.Findings - 3
Self-rescue is best first response in tunnel incident.
It is important to react quickly and correctly.
Motorists are not clear on needed action.Findings - 4
& Intelligent Video
Automatically detects, tracks, and records incidents.*
Tells operator to observe event in question.
Allows operator to take appropriate action.
* This concept can also be applied to detect other activities and incidents in areas besides tunnels, from terrorist activities to accidents, vandalism and other crimes, fires, vehicle breakdowns, etc.Findings - 5
Designers - be aware of ways to minimize fire and traffic safety hazards
Evaluate materials and design detailsFindings - 6
To “Take action immediately!” the operator must initiate several actions simultaneously.
“Press one button”
Initiates several critical actions
Eliminates operator chance to omit important step or perform action out of order
Automated sensor systems are helpful in determining response, e.g., opacity sensors.Findings - 7
by moving a yellow line over
the area of a fire incident
European use of risk-based methodologies for
Safety inspection time and frequency
Maintenance/rehabilitation scope and timing
Inspect less-critical or more-durable portions of system less frequently and concentrate inspections on more critical or fragile components.Findings - 8
Vehicle Spacing in Mont Blanc Tunnel