THE ROARING TWENTIES LIFE & CULTURE IN AMERICA IN THE 1920S
What are the differences between Urban and Rural? • Farms started to __________post-WWI. • 6 million moved to urban areas • Urban life was considered a world of anonymous crowds, strangers, moneymakers, and pleasure seekers. • __________ life was considered to be safe, with close personal ties, hard work and morals. Cities were impersonal Farms were innocent
What is a twenties woman? _______________ – An emancipated young women who embraced the new fashions and urban attitudes! • Examples: right to vote, more employment, freedom of the auto Chicago 1926
What new roles did women take on? Early 20th Century teachers • Many women entered the ____________ as nurses, teachers, librarians, & secretaries. • Earned less than men and were prevented from obtaining certain jobs.
How was the American Family Changing? • American birthrates __________ for several decades before the 1920s. • Trend continues in 1920s with development of ______________. Margaret Sanger and other founders of the American Birth Control League - 1921
What is a modern Family? • Marriage now based on ________________ • Women managed the household and finances. • Children were ________ considered laborers/ wage earners anymore.
Why the support for prohibition? • Supporters were largely from the rural south and _________ • _________ folk did not want the 18th amendment passed
What are Speakeasies and bootleggers? • Many Americans: did not believe drinking was a _________ and most immigrant groups did not want to give up drinking • _______________ – hidden saloons • Bootleggers - smuggled it in from Canada, Cuba and the West Indies Speakeasies
How did organized crime tie in? • Prohibition contributed to the growth of organized crime in every major city • Al Capone – • Chicago, Illinois • famous bootlegger • “Scarface” • 60 million yr (bootleg alone) • Capone took control of the _________ liquor business by killing off his competition • Talent for avoiding jail • 1931 sent to prison for tax-evasion. Al Capone was finally convicted on tax evasion charges in 1931
What is Racketeering? • _____________ business scheme to make profit. • Gangsters bribed police or gov’t officials. • Forced local businesses a fee for “protection”. • No fee - gunned down or businesses blown to bits
What occurred at the Valentines' day Massacre? • February 14, 1929 • Rival between Al Capone and Bugs Moran • Capone – South Side Italian gang • Moran – North Side Irish gang • Bloody murder of 7 of Moran’s men. • Capone’s men dressed as ____________
Why is Prohibition repealed? • By the mid-1920s, only ________ of Americans supported Prohibition • Govt failed to control: had only 1500 people assigned to task • The ________ Amendment finally repealed Prohibition in 1933
What is Fundamentalism? • Fundamentalists vs. Secular thinkers • The Protestant movement - ____________ interpretation of the bible is known as fundamentalism • Fundamentalists found all truth in the bible – including science & evolution
Who is Scopes? • In March 1925, Tennessee passed the nation’s first law that made it a crime to teach __________ • The ACLU promised to defend any _________ willing to challenge the law – John Scopes did Scopes was a biology teacher who dared to teach his students that man derived from lower species
What was the outcome? • Trial opened on July 10,1925 and became a national sensation • In an unusual move, Darrow called Bryan to the stand as an expert on the bible – key question: Should the bible beinterpreted literally? • Under intense questioning, Darrow got Bryan to admit that the bible can be interpreted in ___________ways • Nonetheless, Scopes was found _________ and fined $100 Bryan Darrow
The History Behind The Great Depression
What is a depression? • Depression - an economy with __________ unemployment, falling income, failing business, ____________ in production and sales. • Misconception: - Stock market crash was one cause of the Great Depression.
What are the Causes of the Great Depression? • Mass Consumption: • Living __________ means • Farming Depression (1920-1935) • _________________ land (Banks allowed buyers to put 25% down on an acre that cost $15.00) • Over production on wheat (five million acres) • The Dust Bowl • Uneven Distribution of Wealth • __________________ banks • Stock Market Crash
How did the Stock Market play into the depression? • To attract investors brokers sold stocks on _____________-- the investor paid only part of the selling price in cash and borrowed the rest on margin from the stock broker. • Brokers _________________ money from the banks to cover the margin.
why would a broker want to sell stock on margin? Is this risky? $42.50 $37.50 $425.00 Shares are being sold at $5.00 each. Initially, the investor owes 15%.
Extra! Extra! Read all about it! Stock Market Crashed! Sad days ahead! October 1929 “Black Tuesday” • Confidence in stock market failed • Investors began ____________ stocks • Margin calls- Banks wanted their money from brokers, and brokers wanted their money from _____________. • March 1928 – Stock prices soared and the number of shares traded rose sharply • Stock prices were 400 percent higher • Investors became cautious • Fewer buyers drove prices down
What is the Dust Bowl • The Dust Bowl - 97-million-acre piece of high, level land in the southern portion of the Great Plains: Colorado, New Mexico, Nebraska, Kansas, ________________, and Texas.
The "Drought" Seventy severe dust storms recorded in 1933 • From 1932-1936 the annual rainfall didn’t exceed 12 inches • Low wheat prices and ___________ drove farmers from their lands • _________ clouds lifted and settled over millions of acres • Farmers and farmhands moved into California as migrant workers (The Grapes of Wrathdepicts this lifestyle)
Dust Was Everywhere • Atlantic Monthly, 1930s • “Dust in the beds and in the flour bin, on dishes and walls and windows, in hair, eyes, teeth, and throats…” • People in Cimarron County remember hanging wet blankets across their windows and laying wet cloths over their faces when they went to sleep. • Ceilings collapsed under the ____________ of the accumulated dust mounds.
What are the Effects of the Great Depression • Factories and Mills _____________ • Manufacturing cut in half • Unemployment rose from 3.2 % to 24.9% • Banks ran out of money “The Banking Crisis” F.D.R. • Mortgages ________________ • Homelessness; poverty • “Riches to Rags” For Sale
How are American’s living? • _________________ • Doubt • Most severe for men, women’s jobs actually rose • Children more _____________________ • Whites took-over jobs held by minorities
How does the government respond? • Hoover: “Rugged ________________” self-reliance, restore confidence, grew unpopular as conditions worsened
Why build the Hoover dam? • Hoover successfully organized and authorized the construction of the ______________ Dam(Now called the Hoover Dam) • The $700 million project was the world’s tallest dam (726 feet) and the second largest (1,244 feet long)
The “Old Deal” What? - President Hoover’s reaction to the Great Depression What did he want to do? - Let the ___________ cycle take care of things - Refused to create _____________ programs until it was too late President Herbert Hoover
The Bonus Army 1932 Who? • 25,000 WWI ________________ What? Marched to Washington D.C. to get a $ bonus they were supposed to get in _______
The Bonus Army 1932 What did Hoover do? • Called out the troops and ____________ the army
The Election of 1932 Roosevelt offers a “____________” for America Roosevelt wins with 60% of the vote
Roosevelt’s New Deal Programs meant to help the country by getting the government involved in the economy Meant to do 3 things 1. Relief - help people out in the ________ term 2. Recovery - get the _________ back on its feet 3. Reform - keep this from every happening again
Bank Holiday - First Step • Many banks had failed, wiping out families’ savings • People lost confidence in the ______________ • Closed banks for four days to reorganize • President explains in a “_________ chat” confidence restored
Next Step - “Alphabet Soup” First Hundred Days • In the first 100 days of his administration Roosevelt passes tons of _________________ Alphabet Soup The agencies he creates (like AAA)
Next Step - “Alphabet Soup” CCC - Civilian Conservation Corps • 18-25 year old ________ get jobs and send money home to their families CCC workers in Lassen National Forest, California
Next Step - “Alphabet Soup” AAA - Agricultural Adjustment Administration • Government pays farmers not to farm (Meant to cause prices to rise and ___________ overproduction)
Next Step - “Alphabet Soup” TVA - Tennessee Valley Authority • Government runs a hydroelectric _____________ plant (Provides cheap power & fertilizer to the poor region)
Next Step - “Alphabet Soup” FDIC - Federal Department Insurance Corp. • Insurance for the $ you put in banks (Protected people’s ___________)
Next Step - “Alphabet Soup” Social Security • Taxed people working now to give payments to the __________
The New Deal Pros Restored optimism and hope to Americans Provided necessary _________ to many Cons Did not really fix the depression Left the nation with much _________ Left people too dependent on government (?)
End of Depression • 1939 - unemployment still _________ • Outbreak of WWII - expansion of national defense, stimulating ____________ and growth • Federal Government expanded its role in social and economic areas • Democratic Party - majority of America’s support for next half of century
THE UNITED STATES IN WORLD WAR II AMERICA TURNS THE TIDE
What are the causes of WWII? Japanese Imperialism – US economic sanctions against Japan to protest aggression German Sub Attacks on US naval destroyers while escorting British ships Military Support of Allies -Neutrality Act and Lend-Lease allow US to supply Britain with war goods December 7, 1941 Japan attacks Pearl Harbor US Enters WWII December 8, 1941
Who are Allies /Axis Powers? • Allies • Great Britain • France • Soviet Union (after 6/1941) • U.S. (after 12/1941) • Plus many smaller European nations • Axis Powers • Germany • Italy • Japan
Why bomb Pearl Harbor? • Japan was working on expanding an______________ throughout the Pacific • The U.S. had a trade embargo on Japan to try and deter Japan from invading countries • U.S. was able to ___________ and break Japan's secret codes
Pearl Harbor Continued It was a Sunday morning - U.S. military was taken __________________ 2 full blown attacks on Pearl Harbor December 7, 1941 Impact/Damage on U.S. • o 2,400 U.S. military and civilians lost their lives • o 1,178 U.S. military and civilians wounded • o 18 ships and 350 planes sunk or damaged