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Andragogy. The “art and science” of instructing and teaching adults. Pronunciation and Origination. an·dra·go·gy [ an - dr uh - goh - jee ]. Andragogy ( andr - meaning 'man') could be contrasted with pedagogy (paid- meaning 'child' and agogos meaning 'leading').

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The “art and science” of instructing and teaching adults.

Pronunciation and origination
Pronunciation and Origination



Andragogy (andr- meaning 'man') could be contrasted with pedagogy (paid- meaning 'child' and agogos meaning 'leading')

Andragogy is… teaching strategies developed

for adult learners

It is interpreted as the process of engaging adult learners with the structure of learning experience.

Malcolm knowles 1913 1997
Malcolm Knowles (1913 – 1997)

  • An American educator well known for the use of the term Andragogy as synonymous to the adult education.

  • Best know for his 5 assumptions of Adult Learners and the 4 key Principles of Andragogy that are applied to Adult Learning.

Knowles 5 assumptions
Knowles - 5 Assumptions

Self concept

  • As people mature, they move being a dependent personality toward being more self-directed

  • During the process of maturation, a person moves from dependency toward increasing self-directedness, but at different rates for different people and in different dimensions of life.

  • Teachers have a responsibility to encourage and nurture this movement.

  • Adults have a deep psychological need to be generally self-directing, but they

  • may be dependent in certain temporary situations.


  • As people mature, they amass a growing set of experiences that provide a fertile resource for learning

  • As people grow and develop they accumulate an increasing reservoir of experience that becomes and increasingly rich resource for learning—for themselves and for others.

  • People attach more meaning to learning they gain from experience than those they acquire passively.

  • The primary techniques in education are experiential ones—laboratory experiments, discussion, problem-solving cases, field experiences, etc.

Readiness to learn
Readiness To Learn

  • As people mature, they are more interested in learning subjects that have immediate relevance to their jobs or personal lives

  • People become ready to learn something when they experience a need to learn it in order to cope more satisfyingly with real-life tasks and problems.

  • The educator has a responsibility to create conditions and provide tools and procedures for helping learners discover their "needs to know."

  • Learning programs should be organized around life-application categories and sequenced according to the learners' readiness to learn.

Orientation to learn
Orientation To Learn

  • As people mature, their time perspective changes from gathering knowledge for future use to immediate application of knowledge. As such, adult learners become more problem-centered rather than subject-centered

  • Learners see education as a process of developing increased competence to achieve their full potential in life.

  • They want to be able to apply whatever knowledge and skill they gain today to living more effectively tomorrow.

  • Learning experiences should be organized around competency-development categories.

  • People are performance-centered in their orientation to learning


  • As people mature, they become more motivated by various internal incentives, such as need for self-esteem, curiosity, desire to achieve, and satisfaction of accomplishment

Self directed learning
Self-Directed Learning

According to Knowles, in its broadest sense, self-directed learning describes a process “... in which individuals take the initiative, with or without the help of others, in diagnosing their learning needs, formulating learning goals, identifying human and material resources for learning, choosing and implementing appropriate learning strategies, and evaluating learning outcomes”










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