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Knowles Andragogy Theory of Adult Learning

Knowles Andragogy Theory of Adult Learning

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Knowles Andragogy Theory of Adult Learning

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  1. Knowles Andragogy Theory of Adult Learning Roxanne Sylvester Walden University How Adults Learn: Theory and Research EDUC 8101 Created by Roxanne Sylvester

  2. Agenda • Introduction • Definition of andragogy • Definition of adult • Pedagogy • Andragogy • Assumptions of andragogy • Tenets of andragogy • Teaching and learning implications • Other Post “Andragogy” Theories • Thoughts to consider • References Created by Roxanne Sylvester

  3. Introduction Objectives • Why Andragogy • What distinguishes adult learning from other areas of learning • Importance of Andragogy • What particular characteristics about adult learning can be identified to maximize their learning • Audience knowledge of Andragogy • What do you know about Andragogy • New knowledge and classroom application • Self-directed learning and individual learning experience Created by Roxanne Sylvester

  4. Andragogy “the arts and science of helping adults learn” Coined to differentiate from the theory of youth learning called pedagogy. Introduced to the American culture in 1967 by Dusan Savicevic, a Yugoslavian adult educator Definition of “Andragogy” Created by Roxanne Sylvester

  5. There are four viable definitions of adults Biological definition The age you can reproduce (early adolescence) Legal definition The age the law says you can vote, drive, marry, and etc. Social definition When you start performing adult roles, work, spouse, parent Psychological definition When you arrive at a self-concept of being responsible and self-directed Definition of “Adults” Created by Roxanne Sylvester

  6. Pedagogy “the art and science of teaching children” Education model based on a set of beliefs and assumptions about teaching and learning Assigns the teacher full responsibility for making all learning decisions for the student First There was Pedagogy Created by Roxanne Sylvester

  7. Then Came Andragogy • Knowles’s interest in adult learning was inspired by Eduard Lindeman publication, “Meaning of Adult Education” • Knowles was convinced that adults learn differently to children. • Knowles andragogical theory is based on several assumptions different from those of the pedagogy model. Eduard Lindeman Malcolm Knowles Created by Roxanne Sylvester

  8. The need to know The learner’s concept The roles of the learner’s experiences Readiness to learn Orientation to learning Motivation Andragogy Assumptions Created by Roxanne Sylvester

  9. Click on the link below to view the video YouTube - Andragogy (Adult Learning) Created by Roxanne Sylvester

  10. How applicable is andragogy to Culture and Africentric learners Personal experience The cultural experiences of African American and some adult immigrants were not characterized Marginalized various social groups whose values, experiences, and realities do not resemble the dominant population. Individual Learning Self and society, culture, individual development and ways of learning were not considered. Structural systems of privilege and oppression were not examined. Andragogy Tenets Created by Roxanne Sylvester

  11. Teaching Adult educators tried to create ways to help adults examine their habits and biases and open their minds to new ideas and approaches. The emphasis on adult learning is placed on experiential techniques and peer-helping activities. Curricula were restructured around life situations and coping skills. Learning Adult learners taped into their experiences and self-identity by using such techniques as group discussions, problem-solving activities, case methods, and sensitivity training. Adults are motivated to learn when they perceive that learning will help them perform task or deal with the problems they encounter in their life situations. Andragogy implications for Teaching and learning Created by Roxanne Sylvester

  12. Alternate Approach To Teaching Adults • Hal Beder and Gordon Darkenwald In 1982, Beder and Darkenwald performed studies to examine whether teachers use a different style when teaching adults. Using adult and preadult teachers as subjects, the researchers received feedback from self-reporting questionnaires. • Teachers have to perceive that there is a difference in how adults learn for the instruction to be different. Teachers believed that adults are significantly more intellectually curious, motivated to learn, willing to take responsibility for their learning, willing to work hard at learning, clear about what they want to learn, and concerned with the practical applications and implications of learning than were children. Created by Roxanne Sylvester

  13. Illeris’s three dimensions of learning Cognitive (knowledge and skills) Emotional (feelings and motivation) Society (external interaction) Jarvis’s learning process All learning begins with experience All learning begins with the five human sensations Other Post “Andragogy” Theories Peter Jarvis Knud Illeris Created by Roxanne Sylvester

  14. Conclusion Consider: How does Knowles’s assumptions on adult learning apply to you as a learner or impact your learning. Survey Questionnaire Evaluation Created by Roxanne Sylvester

  15. References • Comu, A (2005) Building on Jarvis: towards a holistic model of the processes of experiential learning. Studies in the education of adults, 27(2) 166-181 Retrieved from • Fidishun, D. (1998). Andragogy and Technology: integrating adult learning theory as we teach with technology. Retrieved from • Imel, S.(1989) Teaching adults: is it different? ERIC Digest, 82, Retrieved from • Knowles, M. S., Holton, E. G., & Swanson, R. A. (1998). A theory of adult learning: andragogy. In The adult learner: the definitive classic in adult education and human resources development (pp. 35-72). Retrieved from • Merriam, S. B., Caffarella, R. S., & Baumgartner, L. M. (2007). Knowles’s andragogy, and models of adult learning by McClusky, Illeris, and Jarvis. In Learning in adulthood (pp. 83-104). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. • Merriam, S. B., Caffarella, R. S., & Baumgartner, L. M. (2007). Adult development. In Learning in adulthood (pp. 298-324). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. • Smith, M.K. (2002) Malcolm Knowles, informal adult education, self-direction and andragogy, the encyclopedia of informal education. Retrieved from Created by Roxanne Sylvester