Andragogy:The Adult Learner Online Course Design______________________________ Renuka Kumar Associate Professor Community College of Baltimore County Maryland
Agenda_______________________________ • Pedagogy vs. Andragogy • What is Andragogy? • Why Andragogy? • Five Assumptions of Andragogy • Define assumption • Pedagogy vs. Andragogy • Implications for Online Instruction • Online Course Design • Conclusion • Discussion
Pedagogy vs. Andragogy_______________________________________ • Pedagogy • The method and practice of teaching. Focus on teaching. • Andragogy • The art and science of helping adults learn. Focus on learning.
What is Andragogy?_______________________________________ • Set of assumptions about how adults learn • 1833 - Alexander Kapp Plato’s educational theories • 1920s - EugenRosenstock Theory of adult education • 1970s - Malcolm Knowles Popularized in the US
Why Andragogy?_______________________________________ • 7.1 million online students -Fall 2012 • 30% of all students in higher education • 80% above age 25
Five Assumptions of Andragogy_______________________________________ Characteristics of adult learners: • Self-directed • Bring experience • Ready to learn • Problem oriented • Motivated to learn
Assumption 1 ______________________________ Self-Directed
Assumption 1 - Self-Directed_______________________________________ Adult learners: • are increasingly independent. • need to be actively involved in decisions that affect them. • believe they are responsible for their lives.
Assumption 1 - Self-Directed_______________________________________ • Pedagogy • The learner is dependent upon the instructor for all learning. • The teacher/instructor assumes full responsibility for what is taught and how it is learned. • The teacher/instructor evaluates learning. Source : http://www.floridatechnet.org/inservice/abe/abestudent/andravsped.pdf • Andragogy • The learner is self-directed. • The learner is responsible for his/her own learning. • Self-evaluation is characteristic of this approach.
Assumption 1 - Self-Directed_______________________________________ Implications for online instruction • Curriculum to focus on process – not content • Variety of learning activities • Facilitator - an equal and an expert • Collaborative and welcoming learning environment • Ongoing guidance and support
Assumption 1 - Self-Directed___________________________________________ Online Course Design • Syllabus should clearly provide: • course expectations. • schedule with due dates. • assignments with grading criteria. • guidelines for online communication. • contact information for the facilitator. • outline response time.
Assumption 1 - Self-Directed___________________________________________ Online Course Design (contd) • Facilitators should: • be available online during the first few days. • welcome each learner individually to the class. • encourage communication between learners. • maintain contact with the learners weekly. • establish a chat room or online “café”. • provide learning objectives for all assignments.
Assumption 2: ______________________________ Bring Experience
Assumption 2 - Bring Experience___________________________________________ • Adults bring life and job experience with them. • This experience is a resource for learning.
Assumption 2 - Bring Experience_______________________________________ • Pedagogy • The learner comes to the activity with little experience that could be tapped as a resource for learning . • The experience of the instructor is most influential. Source : http://www.floridatechnet.org/inservice/abe/abestudent/andravsped.pdf • Andragogy • The learner brings a greater volume and quality of experience. • Adults are a rich resource for one another. • Different experiences assure diversity in groups of adults. • Experience becomes the source of self-identify.
Assumption 2 - Bring Experience_______________________________________ Implications for online instruction • Provide opportunities to use and share their knowledge and experience. • Create an environment to freely express opinions and share ideas.
Assumption 2 - Bring Experience___________________________________________ Online Course Design • Types of assignments: • group projects • reflective activities • interactive discussions • Discussion should encourage real-life applications. • Spur discussion to encourage analytical thinking. • Provide weekly feedback to discussions.
Assumption 3 ______________________________ Ready to Learn
Assumption 3 - Ready to Learn___________________________________________ • Adults: • experience triggers to learn something new – birth, divorce, loss of job. • want to learn what they can apply in their real-life situations.
Assumption 3 - Ready to Learn_______________________________________ • Pedagogy • Students are told what they have to learn in order to advance to the next level of mastery. Source : http://www.floridatechnet.org/inservice/abe/abestudent/andravsped.pdf • Andragogy • Any change is likely to trigger a readiness to learn. • The need to know in order to perform more effectively in some aspect of one’s life is important. • Ability to assess gaps between where one is now and where one wants and needs to be.
Assumption 3 - Ready to Learn_______________________________________ Implications for online instruction • Facilitators should: • realize that each learner enters the course for a specific reason. • acknowledge the range of different backgrounds.
Assumption 3 - Ready to Learn___________________________________________ Online Course Design • Communicate course expectations clearly. • Provide links to resources. • Ask learners what they need to learn. • Lessons should relate to learners needs and goals. • Accommodate multiple learning styles.
Assumption 4 ______________________________ Problem-Oriented
Assumption 4 – Problem-Oriented___________________________________________ • Adults are: • life-centered (task-oriented, problem-centered). • want to learn what will help them perform daily tasks or problems.
Assumption 4 – Problem-Oriented___________________________________________ • Pedagogy • Learning is a process of acquiring prescribed subject matter. • Content units are sequenced according to the logic of the subject matter. Source : http://www.floridatechnet.org/inservice/abe/abestudent/andravsped.pdf • Andragogy • Learners want to perform a task, solve a problem, live in a more satisfying way. • Learning must have relevance to real-life tasks . • Learning is organized around life/work situations rather than subject matter units.
Assumption 4 – Problem-Oriented___________________________________________ Implications for online instruction • Curriculum - process based not content based. • Use real-life examples or situations • Draw on learner’s personal experiences.
Assumption 4 – Problem-Oriented___________________________________________ Online Course Design • Use active learning strategies: • case studies • problem solving • simulations • Group projects - draw on personal experience. • Present and solve “real world” problems. • Share learning objectives for every assignment. • Create meaningful work (avoid busy work).
Assumption 5 ______________________________ Motivated to Learn
Assumption 5 – Motivated to Learn___________________________________________ • External motivators • better jobs and higher salaries • Internal motivators • increased job satisfaction, self-esteem
Assumption 5 – Motivated to Learn__________________________________________ • Pedagogy • Primarily motivated by external pressures, competition for grades, and the consequences of failure. Source : http://www.floridatechnet.org/inservice/abe/abestudent/andravsped.pdf • Andragogy • Internal motivators: self-esteem, recognition, better quality of life, self-confidence, self-actualization.
Assumption 5 – Motivated to Learn__________________________________________ Implications for online instruction • Have activities that build self-esteem. • Recognize the need of learners to be appreciated. • Get learner input into lessons. • Inform learners why topic is important.
Assumption 5 – Motivated to Learn__________________________________________ Online Course Design • Use a friendly, first person style of writing. • Incorporate ongoing evaluation from learners. • Offer multiple assessment strategies. • Tell why topic or link is important. • Provide practical information with examples. • Recognize learners contributions once a week. • Offer a variety of learning support.
Conclusion___________________________________________ • Andragogy should be used as a starting point. • Know needs, backgrounds, and expectations of learners. • Create learner centered educational environment. • Develop course that allows adult learners to be: • actively engaged • motivated • able to gain and share experiences , and • collaborative.
Conclusion (contd)_______________________________________ • Pedagogy vs. andragogy http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VhydhDa0BGU
References_______________________________________ • Blondy, L. (2007). Evaluation and Application of Andragogical Assumptions to the Adult Online Learning Environment. Journal of Interactive Online Learning 6 (2). • Burge, L. (1988). Beyond Andragogy: Some Explorations for Distance Learning Design. Journal of Distance Education 3 (1): 5–23. • The Learning House, Inc.(2012) . Online College Students 2012. Retrieved from http://www.learninghouse.com/files/documents/resources/Online%20College%20Students%202012.pdf • Florida Tech (n.a.). Pedagogy vs. Andragogy. Retrieved from http://www.floridatechnet.org/inservice/abe/abestudent/andravsped.pdf • Perret, Joe (2008). Andragogy and Online Teaching. Retrieved from faculty.piercecollege.edu/perretjd/powerpoint/andragogy.pdf • Sheldon, L. (2013). Andragogy: Welcoming Adult Learners and their Experiences. Retrieved from www.gcc.mass.edu/.../files/.../TLSD-Andragogy-April-13-Sheldon.pptx