The Pedagogy / Andragogy Paradox: new ways of delivering old stuff! Jerry Coulton & Tracey Backrath University Centre, Grimsby
Aims and Objectives of Presentation • Old Stuff, Old Way • Why there is a ‘problem’ here • Same Stuff, New Way • Why This Makes Such A Difference!
Personal Journey Employability Learner First Learners need to KNOW stuff! Learners need to be able to UTILISE the stuff they learn Learners are PAYING for my input, and act accordingly Learners need appropriate SKILLS beyond the relative safety of the academic institution All learners are NOT the same! • Criminology DOES have a ‘Real-World’ application • Criticality does NOT mean dismissal at all cost • Conflict Theory is a valid socially scientific approach, NOT a pragmatic default setting for CJ • Critical appraisal should be Realist enough to inform policy AND shape practice.
Pedagogy • Tutors assume responsibility of what will be learned, as well as how and when • Too much of learning consists of vicarious substitution of someone else’s experience and knowledge. Psychology teaches us that we learn what we do. Experience is the adult learner’s living textbook. (Lindeman, 1926, cited by Conner, 2004:1). http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AEIn3T6nDAo
The challenges.. • Decreasing government support, increasing enrolments • Large class sizes • View of learning as a chore. • Elapsed time since attending education • Shorter attention spans
Androgogy :Learner focussed education • Confucious - Plato saw learning as a process of active enquiry • Adults can learn how to learn – tutors can facilitate this • Adult learning is self directed – potential to be autonomous • Adult learning is purposeful – adults choose to learn for specific reasons • Drawing on experience is fundamental • Adults reflect on, and learn from experience Knowles, Holton and Swanson (2005); Morgan-Klein and Osborne, (2007); Osborne, Houston and Toman (2007) cited in Avis, Fisher and Thompson (2010:98):
Practices of adult learning • Problem based • Build confidence • Draw on experience / relevance • Motivation Rogers 2002; Rogers 2007; Wallis 1996
Strategies and methods • Buzz groups, discussion, student presentations, pair work : differentiation, inclusion, recognition. • One minute paper (McKeachie and Svinicki 2006) : embedding core skills. • Pausing to let students compare notes activates thinking (Ruhl, Hughes and Schloss 1987) • Technology...
www.police.uk http://www.police.uk/overview/?q=Liverpool, Merseyside L3 1QW, UK
Implications • Development of new ways of delivering Higher Education – increase in availability of ICT • Suppressing change will slow our ability to learn new technology and gain competitive advantage. (Connors 2004) • “Relevance of HE Institutions in relation to political priorities such as lifelong learning and increasing national and transnational mobility of individuals..” (Thune, 2003:3). • Needs of the employers
References • Avis, J., Fisher, R. and Thompson, R. (2010) Teaching in Lifelong Learning. A Guide to Theory and Practice. Buckingham. Open University. • Connor, M.L. (2004) Andragogy and Pedagogy. Ageless learner http://agelesslearner.com/intros/androgogy.html date accessed 05/05/12 • Knowles, M., Holton, E. And Swanson, R. (2005) The Adult Learner, 6th Ed. London. Elsevier. • Lindeman, E. (1926) The Meaning of Adult education. New York. New Republic. • McKeachie, W. And Svinicki, M. (2006). Teaching Tips. Strategies, Research and Theory for college and University Teachers. Boston. Houghton Mifflin • Morgan-Klein, B. And Osborne, M. (2007) The Concepts and Practices of Lifelong Learning. London. Routledge. • Osborne, M., Houston, M. and Toman, N. (eds) (2007) The Pedagogy of Lifelong Learning. London. Routledge • Rogers, A. (2002) Teaching Adults. Buckingham. Open University Press • Rogers, J (2007) Adults Learning 5th Ed. Maidenhead. Open University Press • Thune, C. in Middlehurst, R. (2003) Quality Assurance Implications of New Forms of Higher Education. ENQA Occasional Papers 3. European Network for Quality Assurance in Higher Education. Helsinki • Wallis, J. (1996) Liberal Adult Education. The End of an Era? Nottingham. University of Nottingham.