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Authoritarianism, Fascism, and Totalitarianism. The Origins, Nature, and Appeal of Fascism. The Right Wing Single Party States. Origins: 1920s and 1930s: Common Circumstances First World War Wall Street Crash and Great Depression Impact of trench warfare Fate of the state=Infantrymen

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authoritarianism fascism and totalitarianism

Authoritarianism, Fascism, and Totalitarianism

The Origins, Nature, and Appeal of Fascism

the right wing single party states
The Right Wing Single Party States
  • Origins:
  • 1920s and 1930s: Common Circumstances
    • First World War
    • Wall Street Crash and Great Depression
  • Impact of trench warfare
    • Fate of the state=Infantrymen
    • Power follows ability to lead
      • From traditional leaderships to masses
  • Masses of Central, Eastern, and Southern Europe?
    • Experience with government?
    • Vulnerable to demagogues
      • Save the fading elites or personal power
  • Developments in the Media
    • Unprecedented Access
the right wing single party states1
The Right Wing Single Party States
  • Nature:
  • Coups or threats of violence
  • How were they authoritarian?:
    • Suspension of parliamentary constitutions
    • Rule by threat of terror
    • Criticism=traitor
    • Opposition=illegal
    • Enforcement of control (Means)
  • What claims did they make?:
    • Patriotism
    • Law and Order
    • Defending country against bolshevism
    • National regeneration
the right wing single party states2
The Right Wing Single Party States
  • Nature:
  • Leadership: Army officers or militarization
  • Control of media?
  • Scapegoating of minorities?
fascism
Fascism
  • Many Interpretations:
  • Seymour Martin Lipset:
    • A lower-middle class radicalismWhy?
    • Weaknesses of this argument?
      • Role of elites
      • Fascism-Classless movement?
  • Marxists-Fascist Rulers=Agents of Capitalism
  • NicosPoulantzas-Radical Populist movement
    • Problem of restoring hegemony
  • K.D. Bracherand Eric Hobsbawm
    • “The revolutionaries of counter-revolution”
  • “FASCIST”-Can we define it?
    • Robert Paxton Definition
comparison of hitler and stalin
Comparison of Hitler and Stalin

Stalin

Hitler

Rise: Outside a system

Far from a committee man

Aloof/”Solve themselves”

Nazism: Hitler’s Creation

Hitler: Opponents

Considerable trust in some

Incredible charisma

Radicalism increased

Hitler- “Irreplaceable”

  • Rise: Within a system
  • Committee Man
  • Interventionist/Micro-Manager
  • Policies: Against ideology
  • Terrorized support and dissent
  • Trusted no one
  • Cult of Personality=Sham
  • Conservatism increased
  • Stalin- “Replaceable”