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Totalitarianism and Fascism. Europe between the wars. Lecture Outline. European States after the War Rise of Dictators Fascism and Benito Mussolini. Key Terms. Totalitarianism Benito Mussolini Black Shirts Fascism. What is totalitarianism?.

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totalitarianism and fascism

Totalitarianism and Fascism

Europe between the wars

lecture outline
Lecture Outline
  • European States after the War
  • Rise of Dictators
  • Fascism and Benito Mussolini
key terms
Key Terms
  • Totalitarianism
  • Benito Mussolini
  • Black Shirts
  • Fascism
what is totalitarianism
What is totalitarianism?
  • A government that controls every aspect of public and private life
  • New totalitarian governments wanted to conquer the minds and hearts of their subjects
democratic states after the war
Democratic States After the War
  • By 1939 only 2 major European states—France and Great Britain—remained democratic.
authoritarian governments in the east
Authoritarian Governments in the East
  • Authoritarian governments developed in some of the new nations in Eastern Europe, including Austria, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary, and Yugoslavia.
reasons for the spread of authoritarian governments
Reasons for the Spread of Authoritarian Governments
  • Most of these countries had little or no experience with political democracy
  • Their populations were largely rural and uneducated
  • Large landowners still dominated the social and political system and they did not want to give up power
  • Eastern European states were usually made up of multiple ethnic groups, which often were not united.
how did totalitarian governments achieve their goals
How did totalitarian governments achieve their goals?
  • Mass propaganda and communication
  • By being led by a single leader and party
  • The rejected the idea of limited government power and the guarantee of individual freedoms
  • Individual freedom was subordinate to the collective will of the masses which was organized and determined by the leader
  • They expected the active involvement of the masses in the achievement of these goals.
how did wwi and the depression affect italy
How did WWI and the Depression affect Italy?
  • Inflation grew, and both industrial and agricultural workers staged strikes
  • The middle class began to fear a Communist takeover.
who is benito mussolini
Who is Benito Mussolini?
  • He was an Italian radical who detested liberal, reform ideas
  • He had been seriously wounded in WWI.
who are the black shirts
Who are the Black Shirts?
  • Paramilitary units organized by Mussolini made up of dissatisfied veterans and other disillusioned Italians.
  • In 1919 they used violence to intimidate their opponents. They ransacked the offices of leftist organizations and newspapers.
who supported mussolini
Who supported Mussolini?
  • The middle class and wealthy landowners supported Mussolini because of their fear of a Communist revolution.
  • He also appealed to nationalists by arguing that Italy should have received more land in the peace agreement after WWI.
  • The Fascist Party had 10% of the seats in Parliament and total membership was only around 300,000.
how did mussolini gain power in italy
How did Mussolini gain power in Italy?
  • In 1922, Mussolini and the Fascists threatened to march on Rome if they were not given power.
  • Victor Emmanuel II, king of Italy, gave in and made Mussolini prime minister of Italy.
  • In December 1922, parliament granted Mussolini dictatorial powers for one year to restore order to the country.
  • In the elections of 1924 the Fascists received 63% of the vote.
what did mussolini do as dictator
What did Mussolini do as dictator?
  • He banned freedom of speech
  • The prime minister was made the head of the government with the power to make laws by decree
  • The police were given unrestricted authority to arrest and jail anyone for either political or nonpolitical crimes.
  • In 1926, all other political parties were banned and a secret police was established.
italy as a totalitarian state
Italy as a totalitarian state
  • Mussolini never attempted to establish control over all aspects of Italian life
  • The Catholic Church and the monarchy were not formally subjugated to the state.
  • The Italian Fascists respected the independence of the judges, and made no attempt to interfere with court procedures