authoritarianism Group members: Evon Tan Ka Vun Regina Resa Sharon Wong TheclaJospeh
A form of social control characterised by strict obedience. A form of government which possesses the right to command others. DEFINITIONS A government which controls the society through mass organisations and repressive system. The people are submissive. They have no right to speak and they have no freedom.
Political power is concentrated in a leader or leaders. There is not tolerance. There is repressive system and mass organisations to control the society. Characteristics of an authoritarian state Governments is ruled by men. The elections are rigged. There is an attempt to control on virtually all elements of society.
Elements of the Authoritarianism personality type according to Adorno’s theory. Resistance to creative, dangerous ideas. Respect for submission to acknowledge authority. A negative view of people in general. Belief in aggression toward those who disobey. • A need for strong leadership which displays uncompromising power A belief in simple answers and polemics. Eg. The media controls us all. Requires unquestioning obedience from the ruled.
Concepts of authoritariansim • Authoritarian submission • Authoritarian aggression • Rigid thinking, superstition and stereotypy • Power and toughness • Destructiveness
Authoritarianism may exist under different regimes: • Absolute monarchies are always authoritarian. For instance, critisizing the royal government of France under the “ancien regime” could get writers ecetra imprisoned by executive order.
Communist states, Dictatorships, Fascist nations, Despotisms are often authoritarian. • Fascist nations require strong leadership, singular collective identity, and the will and ability to commit violence to keep the nation strong . Despotisms is defined as rule by or as if by a despot; absolute power or authority.
According to Hacker (in Hole 1998), the authoritarian character lacks insight, reflection, speculation and fantasy, desires “powerful leaders”, is obedient and respects authorities. Hacker lists the following characteristic traits of this personality structure: conventionality, authoritative submissiveness, drive for power, robustness, destructiveness and projectivity. • http://www.cepsr.com/clanek.php?ID=328
Examples of authoritarian regimes: • Guatemala after 1954 • Cuba in the 1950's under Bautista • Iran under the Shah in 1952 • Zaire under Mobutu • the Philippines under Marcos • Indonesia in 1968 under Suharto • South Korea under Syngman Rhee • the entire history of South Vietnam • Central America from the 1930's to the 1980's.
Issues of Authoritarianism in malaysia • The official ideology is Rukunegrapromotion the belief in God and loyalty to King and Nations. • It upholds the constitution, democracy, diverse cultural traditions, the rule of law, morality and guarantees the rights of free speech, assembly and association.
After Second War World, the British colonial domination in Malaysia ended. Malaysian parties are also highly centralized for democratic participation using authoritarian methods to maximize power. The country does not guarantee freedomin constitutions, using legal restrictions and state ownerships of communications media to secure media compliance.