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Last Class: 1. transportation at the plasma membrane A. carrier protein, B. channel protein 2. intracellular compartment PowerPoint Presentation
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Last Class: 1. transportation at the plasma membrane A. carrier protein, B. channel protein 2. intracellular compartments A. nucleus, B. Endoplasmic Reticulum. Intracellular Vesicular Traffic. The endocytic and biosynthetic-secretory pathways. Vesicular transport.

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Presentation Transcript
slide1
Last Class:
  • 1. transportation at the plasma membrane
  • A. carrier protein, B. channel protein
  • 2. intracellular compartments
  • A. nucleus, B. Endoplasmic Reticulum
slide5

The intracellular compartments of the eucaryotic cell in the biosynthetic-secretory and endocytic pathways

slide10

The role of dynamin in pinching off clathrin-coated vesicles from the membrane

Shibire mutant in drosophila

slide25

The functional compartmentalization of the Golgi apparatus

Notice of multiple steps involving glycosylation

slide26

Two possible models explaining the organization of the Golgi apparatus and the transport of proteins from one cisterna to the next

slide28

Lysosomes

Low pH

Full of Acid hydrolases

slide32

Phagocytosis by a macrophage

Phagocytosis: large particle, >250nm

Pinocytosis: fluid, liquid, 100 nm

One macrophage and two red blood cells

slide41

Sorting of membrane proteins in the endocytic pathway

Green: EGF-EGFR

Red: transferrin and its receptor

slide48

Exocytosis as a localized responses

Beads attachment localized the release

summary

Summary

Intracellular vesicular traffic, SNARE, GAB, Clathrin, Dynamin, Adaptin

ER->Golgi, COPII, COPI

Golgi->lysosome, acid hydrolases, M6P

endocytosis, phagocytosis, pinocytosis, clathrin-coated pit, caveolae,

Exocytosis, constitutive and regulated mechanisms

slide57

For Long distance, two typical ways

Endocrine signaling

Different cells need specific ligands and receptors

slide58

Synaptic signaling

More efficient, same set of ligands and receptors

slide59

Signaling via GAP Junctions

No ligand-receptor system needed

slide61

Different receptor type and intracellular signaling molecules determine the ultimate response

slide63

NO (nitric oxide) induces the relaxation of SMC

The function of viagra is to inhibit cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase, hence elongate the lifetime of cyclic GMP and relaxation

slide65

Cell Surface receptors belong to three classes: 1. ion-channel-linked receptors, 2. G-protein-linked receptors, 3. enzyme-linked receptors

slide66

Cell Surface receptors belong to three classes: 1. ion-channel-linked receptors, 2. G-protein-linked receptors, 3. enzyme-linked receptors

slide67

Different Kinds of intracellular proteins serving as signaling molecules

  • Relay proteins
  • Messenger proteins
  • Adaptor proteins
  • Amplifier proteins
  • Transducer proteins
  • Bifurcation proteins
  • Integrator proteins
  • Latent gene regulatory proteins
slide68

Two kinds of molecule switch events

Phosphorylation and GTP binding

slide70

Intracellular signaling complexes enhance the speed, efficiency, and specificity

2 types: Preassembled vs. Assembled after stimulation

slide71

Intracellular signaling complexes enhance the speed, efficiency, and specificity

2 types: Preassembled vs. Assembled after stimulation

slide73

Cells can be sensitive to subtle difference in environment

1. Multiple ligands are needed for one signaling molecule

slide74

Cells can be sensitive to subtle difference in environment

2. Multiple ligated molecules are needed to be assembled to be functional

slide75

Cells can be sensitive to subtle difference in environment

3. Positive feedback can enhance the response drastically

summary1
Summary
  • Typical signaling transduction pathway: 1. ligand-receptor, 2. gap junctions
  • Different inputs, receptors, intracellular signaling network determine the ultimate response
  • The importance of lifetime of molecules
  • Different steps of responses
  • The types of receptors: ion-channel-linked, G protein coupled, enzyme-linked receptors
  • Intracellular signaling molecules, signaling switches, signaling integration, signaling complex assembly, protein-protein binding modulus, signaling amplification, signaling desensitization