Genetic Inheritance - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Genetic Inheritance

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  1. Genetic Inheritance

  2. Objective • Describe sexual and asexual mechanisms for passing genetic materials from generation to generation.

  3. Genes • Hereditary information is contained in genes. • Genes are composed of DNA that makes up the chromosomes of cells.

  4. Genes • Each gene carries a single unit of information. • A human cell contains thousands of different genes. Gene

  5. Each Cell = Full set of genes • Each human cell contains a copy of all the genes needed to produce a human being.

  6. Genetic Inheritance • A single inherited trait of an individual can be determined by one pair or by many pairs of genes. Unattached earlobes (Dominant) Attached earlobes (Recessive)

  7. Genetic Inheritance • A single inherited trait of an individual can be determined by one pair or by many pairs of genes.

  8. Asexual Reproduction • In asexual reproduction, all the genes come from a single parent. • Asexually produced offspring are genetically identical to the parent.

  9. Asexual Reproduction • In asexual reproduction, all the genes come from a single parent. • Asexually produced offspring are genetically identical to the parent.

  10. Sexual Reproduction • In sexual reproduction typically half of the genes come from each parent. 23 chromosomes in the sperm 23 chromosomes in the egg

  11. Sexual Reproduction • In sexual reproduction typically half of the genes come from each parent. 46 chromosomes in the zygote

  12. Sexual Reproduction • Sexually produced offspring are not identical to either parent.

  13. The Lincoln Family

  14. Objectives • Describe simple mechanisms related to the inheritance of some physical traits in offspring.

  15. Genetic Inheritance • In all organisms, genetic traits are passed on from generation to generation.

  16. Dominant vs. Recessive traits • Some genes are dominant and some are recessive. Dominant Dominant Recessive Dominant Recessive Recessive

  17. Genetic Probability The probability of traits being expressed can be determined using models of genetic inheritance.

  18. Punnet Squares • Some models of prediction are pedigree charts and Punnett squares. R= round r= wrinkled

  19. Green vs. Yellow Pea Pods G = g =

  20. Pedigree Chart

  21. Pedigree Chart

  22. Incomplete Dominance • Some traits are inherited by mechanisms other than dominance and recessiveness.