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What are the Middle Ages?. Begins with the Fall of Rome Life was less safe for people People worked hard for protection. Middle Ages Across the Globe. 500 CE – 1350 CE. Scope of Unit 3. Religious Impact on Societies Rise of Christianity Rise and Spread of Islam

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middle ages across the globe

What are the Middle Ages?

  • Begins with the Fall of Rome
  • Life was less safe for people
  • People worked hard for protection

Middle Ages Across the Globe

500 CE – 1350 CE

slide3

Scope of Unit 3

  • Religious Impact on Societies
    • Rise of Christianity
    • Rise and Spread of Islam
  • Intro and Geography of China, MidEast, Europe
    • Fall and Recovery of Empires
  • Feudalism
    • Lord, Vassals, Manors, Knights, Chivalry, Serfs, Magna Carta

Dave the Barbarian

main ideas early middle ages
Main Ideas: Early Middle Ages
  • When Rome fell, Europe had no central government or defense
  • Europe was divided into many kingdoms as Germanic invaders conquered large lands of Europe.
  • Christianity played a significant role in unifying Europe.
  • Generally, the Early Middle Ages was characterized by illiteracy, depopulation, lack of literature, and confusion
after the great romans what s next
After The Great Romans…What’s Next?
  • The Franks, Angles, Saxons were just some groups to build societies in Western Europe.
      • Visigoths  Spain
      • Ostrogoths  Italy
  • By the 400s CE, Rome left Britain and people called the Angles and Saxons conquered.
      • Anglo-Saxons
      • Celts also controlled parts of Britain
slide6

Map Analysis

1. Which were the largest Germanic kingdoms?

2. What geographic features helped the Ostrogoths to hold Italy?

geography s role
Geography’s Role
  • Rivers played an important role for travel and trade
    • Rhine, Danube, Vistula, Volga, Siene and Po Rivers provide safety as well as trade
    • Wide rivers allowed people to stay separated and develop their own cultures
  • Mountainsalso separated groups and encouraged development of independent kingdoms
the franks christianity
The Franks & Christianity
  • Christianity plays a major role in understanding the Frankish Kingdom
  • Most Franks were Catholic  the Catholic Church wanted to try to bring order to Europe

The Church wants Europe to be kept Christian.

  • The Pope offered support to noble mayors and donated land. This land became known as the Papal States.

Here’s the catch…

who was charlemagne
Who Was Charlemagne?
  • Charles the Great  Charlemagne
    • Crowned by the Pope in 800 CE as Emperor of the Romans
  • Invaded Eastern Germany, defeating the Saxons and ordered them to convert
  • to Christianity
  • Loyal to the Pope
  • Made Aachen (ah-kuhn) the capital
  • of his empire
who was charlemagne1

I wish we were all smarter…

Who Was Charlemagne?
  • Believed in education
      • Favorite subject: astronomy
      • Disappointed that most Franks were not well educated
      • Started schools to educate children of government workers in religion, Latin, music, literature, math
europe is invaded
Europe is Invaded
  • After Charlemagne’s death, Europe was invaded by three main groups:

Muslims

Magyars

Vikings

came from the South and raided Italy, Spain and North Africa

came from the

East

came from the North, a region called Scandinavia

destroying the frankish kingdoms
Destroying the Frankish Kingdoms
  • Vikings, or Norsemen, began raiding Europe in 700-800s CE
      • Robbed villages, churches, farms
  • The raids helped to destroy the Frankish Kingdoms (which later became Germany)
  • Broke down into tiny states ruled by counts, dukes, and nobles
  • Desperate for order, nobles tried to elect a king
the holy roman empire
The Holy Roman Empire
  • Otto I – a strong king of Germany
      • Some nobles didn’t want a powerful king
      • Otto I fought invaders and sent troops to protect the Pope
  • To reward Otto for his loyalty and help, the Pope declared him emperor of the Romans
  • The territory wascalled the Holy Roman Empire
    • Within the empire, Germany and Italy still remained small, isolated kingdoms
slide21

Was the Holy Roman Empire…

...holy?

….Roman?

or

…an empire?

Disagree or agree with this statement as a group and support your point.

charlemagne s empire
Charlemagne’s Empire

The Franks – a powerful group that

depended on knights

Knights – heavily armed warriors who

fought on horseback

In return for their loyalties, rulers awarded knights with land and privileges.

The most important leader of the Franks was Charlemagne, which means Charles “The Great”

Charlemagne is crowned

Holy Roman Emperor in 800 CE

feudalism
Feudalism
  • Feudalism provided people with protection and safety by establishing a stable social order.
feudalism1
Feudalism
  • Under this system, people were bound to one another by promises of loyalty. In theory, all the land in the kingdom belonged to the monarch (usually a king, but sometimes a queen). A great deal of land was also owned by the Church. The king kept some land for himself and gave fiefs (FEEFS), or land grants, to his most important lords, who became his vassals. In return, each lord promised to supply the king with knights in times of war. A lord then enlisted lesser lords and knights as his vassals. Often, these arrangements were written down. Many of these contractssurvive to this day in museums.
feudalism2
Feudalism
  • At the bottom of the social system were peasants. Lords rented some of their land to the peasants who worked for them. However, some peasants, called serfs, were “tied” to the land they worked. They could not leave the lord’s land without permission, and they had to farm his fields in exchange for a small plot of their own.
  • Most lords and wealthier knights lived on manors, or large estates. A manor included a castle or manor house, one or more villages, and the surrounding farmland. Manors were in the country, far from towns. That meant the peasants had to produce everything the people on the manor needed. Only a few goods came from outside the manor, such as salt for preserving meat and iron for making tools.
  • During the Middle Ages, people were born into a social class for life. They had the same social position, and often the same job, as their parents. Let’s take a closer look at the social classes in feudal society.
slide27

To fear God and maintain His Church

To serve the liege lord in valourand faith

To protect the weak and defenceless

To give succour to widows and orphans

To refrain from the wanton giving of offence

To live by honour and for glory

To despise pecuniary reward

To fight for the welfare of all

To obey those placed in authority

To guard the honour of fellow knights

To eschew unfairness, meanness and deceit

To keep faith

At all times to speak the truth

To persevere to the end in any enterprise begun

To respect the honour of women

Never to refuse a challenge from an equal

Never to turn the back upon a foe

the crusades
The Crusades
  • During the Middle Ages, the Byzantine Empire in the East came under attack
jerusalem s old city
Jerusalem’s Old City
  • How is this section of the city divided?
  • Why might people fight over this city?
pope urban ii
Pope Urban II
  • Pope Urban II declares a Crusade in 1095 against Muslim Turks
  • Goal: to recapture the Holy Land (Jerusalem)

Jerusalem Today

how were the crusades fought
How were the Crusades fought?
  • Thousands of soldiers on horseback headed east
  • Wore red crosses on their clothes as a sign of loyalty to the Pope
  • In 1095, Crusaders captured Syrian city Antioch
    • Reach Jerusalem in 1099
second crusade
Second Crusade
  • Muslims soon retaliate
    • 1144 – Muslims capture Edessa
    • Pope launches a Second Crusade
  • Saladin – becomes Muslim ruler of Egypt I
    • United Muslims and declared war against Christians
    • Goal: to recapture states that Christians had taken
    • Brilliant leader; recaptured Jerusalem

Saladin

third crusade
Third Crusade
  • Leaders from Europe send their armies to fight Saladin
      • King Frederick of the Holy Roman Empire
      • King Richard the Lionhearted from England
      • King Phillip II of France

King Frederick

King Richard The Lionhearted

King Phillip II

third crusade1
Third Crusade

Lots of problems!

  • Had many problems
      • King Frederick of the Holy Roman Empire
      • King Richard the Lionhearted from England
      • King Phillip II of France

Drowned in a river…

Had a truce with Saladin…

Won a little land…then went home…

fourth crusade
Fourth Crusade
  • New Pope: Pope Innocent III
    • Constantinople is burned and looted
    • 6 more crusades!
    • Gradually the Muslims conquered all of the territory back

Maybe not…

Fourth time’s the Charm!

so what did the crusades do for europe
So, what did the Crusades do for Europe?
  • Affect Europe in two main ways
    • 1. Increased trade between Europe and Middle East
    • 2. Broke down the feudalism system
can you fill it in
Can you fill it in?

European Christians began the Crusades to repel the Muslims and re-take the Holy Land. Between 1096 and 1291, a number of Crusades were fought in the Middle East. Crusaders won control of Jerusalem and set up Christian kingdoms in the region. In 1187, Muslims won back Jerusalem. By 1291, Muslims had recaptured all the Crusader cities.

reflections on chivalry day
Reflections on Chivalry Day

What was the most difficult/easy aspect of your project?

What is your project’s greatest strength? Weakness?

What did you learn from this project?

slide43
Who were the Crusaders?What caused the Crusades?What was the fight over?How did Europe change due to the Crusades?
primary source analysis
Primary Source Analysis

The West must march to the defense of the East. All should go, rich and poor alike.

The Franks must stop their internal wars and squabbles.

Let them go instead against the infidel and fight a righteous war.

  • What is a primary source?

Pope Urban II

primary source analysis1
Primary Source Analysis

God himself will lead them, for they are doing His work.

There will be absolution and remission of sins for all who die in the service of Christ.

Here they are poor and miserable sinners, there they will be rich and happy. Let none hesitate,they must march next summer. God wills it!

Pope Urban II

the men pictured to the left are all crusaders are they all knights
The men pictured to the left are all crusaders. Are they all knights?

Why Fight?

  • Respect
  • Prestige
  • Property and Land
  • Entry to Heaven
  • Earn Money through Trade

Merchants, Nobles, and Priests

impact on christians
Impact on Christians
  • Why fight?
    • Wealth, glory, battle
    • Example: Christians looting Constantinople – which was under Christian control
  • Increase of the use of money in Europe
  • Knights began banking, making loans and investments
  • New fabrics for clothes, new spices and tastes for food
  • European merchants earned enormous profits by trading
impact on muslims
Impact on Muslims
  • Fewer benefits
  • Lost land
  • Crusaders destroyed Muslim property
  • New exposure to weapons and military ideas
    • i.e. use of standing armies
  • Muslim merchants earned riches from trade with Europe
  • Political changes included a new Muslim unity (Saladin)
impact on jewish
Impact on Jewish
  • Crusades dramatically worsened lives of Jews
    • Anti-Semitism: hostility or discrimination against Jews
    • Caused a relocation to Eastern Europe
    • Why?
      • Crusaders traveling destroyed synagogues, holy books
      • Riots and massacres break out in a number of cities
      • Crusaders took over the jobs Jews had, such as banking