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Becoming a World Power. Ch 17 Notes. 17.1 The Pressure to Expand. Imperialism: stronger nations attempt to create empires by dominating weaker nations (economically, politically, culturally, and militarily). Factors the Led to the Growth of Imperialism. Economic Factors

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17 1 the pressure to expand
17.1 The Pressure to Expand
  • Imperialism: stronger nations attempt to create empires by dominating weaker nations (economically, politically, culturally, and militarily)
factors the led to the growth of imperialism
Factors the Led to the Growth of Imperialism
  • Economic Factors
    • Industrialization needed resources
  • Nationalistic Factors
    • Competition for large empire led to nationalism
  • Military Factors
    • Advances in military technology and growing navies led to need for bases around world for fuel and supplies
  • Humanitarian Factors
    • Duty to spread Western civilization (law, medicine, Christianity)
europe led the way
Europe Led the Way
  • Great Britain, France, and Russia
    • “sun never sets on British Empire”
  • US wanted in by 1890
    • Expansionists denied the US wanted to annex (join a new territory to existing country) but it happened
monroe doctrine
Monroe Doctrine
  • 1820s
  • US will not get involved with European affairs as long as Europe stays out of the Western Hemisphere
us expansion
US Expansion
  • 1830s-1850s the size of the US more than doubled (the west) with manifest destiny
  • After the Civil War William H. Seward advised president to send troops toward Mexico to make sure the new leader (under France’s control) didn’t move into the US
    • Pushed French out of Mexico
1867: Seward bought Alaska from Russia
    • “Seward’s Folly” (mistake)
    • 2¢ an acre
    • Hoped to push British out of Canada
interest in the pacific
Interest in the Pacific
  • 1853: Commodore Matthew Perry went to Tokyo Bay in Japan to open up trade
  • Pacific Islands of Midway in 1867
  • Hawaii: sell sugar in the US duty-free as long as don’t sell/lease territory to other nations
caribbean and latin america
Caribbean and Latin America
  • 1870 President Grant announced that Monroe Doctrine applied to these areas
  • US began playing an active role in diplomatic and military conflicts in Latin America
arguments for expansion
Arguments FOR Expansion
  • Promote economic growth
    • Overproduction of food/goods led to financial panics and frequent depressions
    • New markets abroad would fix this
    • Some invested in foreign countries and even played roles in Central American governments: banana republics
      • Ex: Minor C. Keith’s United Fruit Co.
Protect America’s national security
    • Protect overseas trade
    • Naval Advisory Board 1881: pushed to increase navy’s budget
    • 1883: 3 new cruisers and 2 battleships
    • Naval Act 1890: construction of more battleships, gunboats, torpedo boats, and cruisers
      • By 1900 USA had one of most powerful navies in the world
Preserve the American Spirit
    • People worried that the end of the frontiers would cause the nation to lose it’s pioneer spirit
    • Building an empire would revive that
    • Social Darwinism: expansionism was not only a nation’s destiny but also a noble pursuit because it civilized “heathens”
  • Gradually Americans supported
    • More for new markets and good trade relations
    • Soon found entanglements
17 2 spanish american war
17.2 Spanish-American War
  • 1890’s Events that set the stage
    • US saying we’re powerful and you better listen
      • 1891: in Chile men attacked American soldiers
        • Killed 2, hurt 17
        • US forced Chile to pay $75,000 to soldiers’ families
      • 1893: Brazilian dictator tried to take over
        • US ordered Navy to protect American shipping interests
1840’s England and Venezuela disputed over land
  • 1880’s dispute resurfaced with rumors of mineral wealth there
    • US said to listen to the Monroe Doctrine and go to arbitration
    • British replied that they didn’t have to follow but agreed later in order to stay friendly with the US
cuban rebellion
Cuban Rebellion
  • Was Spanish colony
  • Rebellion in 1868 and again in 1895
    • Spain sent troops and Gen. Weyler
    • Set up “reconcentration” policy and Cubans forced into guarded camps
    • Many Cubans in the US wanted our gov to get involved
    • Some Cubans there destroyed US businesses to push the US to get involved
yellow journalism
Yellow Journalism
  • Pulitzer and Hearst took advantage of stories coming from Cuba about the “Butcher” Weyler and the camps
  • Some Cuban journalists wrote to get American opinion to support intervention
    • Jose Martí
  • Jingoism: intense national pride and push for aggressive foreign policy that resulted in the US getting involved
steps to war
Steps to War
  • 1898 riots in Havana, Cuba
  • President McKinley moved battleship USS Maine into the city’s harbor to protect US interests and people there
  • The de Lôme letter
    • Early Feb. 1898 US newspapers published a letter stolen from Spanish ambassador to DC
      • Ridiculed McKinley
      • Intensified anti-Spanish sentiment
Explosion of the USS Maine
    • Feb 15 explosion sank the ship, killed >250 American sailors
    • Enraged Americans called for war
  • Preparing in the Philippines
    • Spain’s possession
    • Could be a key base for US Navy
    • TR told naval commanders in Pacific to prepare for military action which McKinley stopped except one – Dewey’s
    • Dewey told to attack if war broke out
McKinley’s war message
    • May 1, 1898, Dewey launched surprise attack on Philippines
    • In Cuba US stopped Spain’s fleet in a harbor
    • American army gathered in Tampa, FL to prepare for invasion of Cuba
      • Most famous: Rough Riders under TR’s command
        • Charged up San Juan Hill in war
    • July 3 US sank all Spanish ships there
    • 2,500 Americans died in war, <400 in battle
treaty of paris
Treaty of Paris
  • Dec 1898 US and Spain signed peace treaty
  • Spanish gave Cuba independence
  • Spain got $20 mill and US got Philippines, Puerto Rico, and Guam
    • Became “unincorporated” territories of the US meaning they were not intended for eventual statehood
  • Senate ratified in Feb 1899
challenges after the war
Challenges After the War
  • How to create policy to run things?
  • McKinley wanted to annex Philippines to prevent future wars with other countries
  • Filipinos expected independence like Cubans received
    • Leaders pushed for it like Emilio Aguinaldo
  • Feb 1899 3 yr war began
independence for the philippines
Independence for the Philippines?
  • >4,000 Americans killed and almost 3,000 wounded
  • American forces killed 16,000 Filipino rebels and about 20,000 civilians
  • Philippines didn’t gain complete independence until 1946
fate of cuba
Fate of Cuba
  • Teller Amendment attached to Congress’s 1898 war resolution
    • Promised US would not annex Cuba
    • McKinley put a military gov in place that lasted 3 years
      • Organized school system and restored economic stability
      • Est a commission that discovered cure for yellow fever
cubans felt lied to
Cubans Felt Lied To
  • Many felt betrayed w/o independence
  • 1900 US authorized Cubans to draft a constitution
    • Modeled on US Constitution
    • Did not allow US involvement in Cuba
  • US agreed if Platt Amendment included
    • Cuban gov could not enter any foreign agreements, would allow US to est naval bases as needed there, must give US right to intervene when necessary
    • Cuba reluctantly agreed
    • US only involved twice until 1934 when ended
puerto rico
Puerto Rico
  • Maintained military gov until 1900
  • Foraker Act in 1900
    • US removed military control and est a civil gov, under US control
    • US ceded more freedom and control
  • Jones Act in 1917
    • US granted Puerto Ricans American citizenship
    • Could elect own legislatures, US retained power to appoint key officials like governor
in the pacific
In the Pacific
  • Hawaii
    • 1887 trade treaty for duty-free goods sold in US
    • Leased Pearl Harbor to the US as fueling and repair station for naval vessels
    • Hawaiian-born planters forced king Kalakuau to accept a new constitution that gave them control of the gov
    • When he died, his sister Liliuokalani came to throne
  • Opposed US control and wanted to reduce the power of foreign merchants
  • 1893 US Marines helped pineapple planter Sanford B. Dole remove Queen Liliuokalani
  • Proclaimed Hawaii a republic and requested that it be annexed by the US
  • McKinley supported annexation
  • 1898 Congress approved annexation
  • Polynesian islands were another stepping stone to growing trade with China
  • 1878 the US had negotiated a treaty offering protection in return for a lease on Pago Pago (harbor)
  • 1889 US, Britain, and Germany arranged a 3-way protectorate of Samoa
  • By end of the year it was left to just the US
  • Huge population and vast markets were important to US trade
  • Russia, Germany, Britain, France, and Japan were seeking Spheres of Influence (areas of political and economic control) in China
  • 1899 John Hay, Sec. of State wrote notes to European powers trying to persuade them to keep and “open door” to China
open door policy
Open Door Policy
  • Allow the countries equal access to China’s millions of consumers
  • Met with cool response from other countries
china s reaction
China’s Reaction
  • Resented foreign influence of any kind
  • Secret society the Righteous and Harmonious Fists (“Boxers”) began rebellion in 1900
    • Led to massacre of 300 foreigners & Christian Chinese
    • European powers ended it
  • Hays issued more open door notes & reminded nations of US plan to preserve it
17 3 a new foreign policy
17.3 A New Foreign Policy
  • Panama Canal
    • Americans needed shorter route between Atlantic and Pacific Oceans
    • French attempted in 1879 through Panama when bought a 25 yr concession from Colombia to build canal
      • Abandoned project after 10 yrs
    • France offered US rights to project for $100 million
Spooner Act in 1902: Congress authorized purchase of French assets when price got down to $40 mill
    • Required the US work out treaty for Colombia for lease on land
  • Treaty negotiations went nowhere
  • TR made it clear to Philippe Bunau-Varilla that US would not interfere if French co organized a Panamanian revolution
Revolt in Nov 1903 with US warships waiting offshore to provide support for rebels
  • US immediately recognized Panama’s independence and became its protector
  • Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty signed in Nov 1903
    • US got 10 mile wide strip of land for canal and Panama got $10 mill
  • Construction began in 1904 and ended in 1914, 6 mos ahead of time and $23 mill under budget
reaction to the canal
Reaction to the Canal
  • People didn’t like the way TR went about getting the Canal Zone
  • Most Americans approved because they thought it was necessary for national security and prosperity
  • Some ill will left between Latin Americans and US
  • 1921 Congress voted to pay $25 mill to Colombia to make up for this (2 yrs after TR died)
roosevelt s big stick diplomacy
Roosevelt’s Big Stick Diplomacy
  • Dec 1904 and 05 TR issued messages to Congress known as the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine: TR denied that US wanted any more territory
    • Only wanted to see neighboring countries become stable, orderly, and prosperous
    • US would use “international police power” if needed
tests of the corollary
Tests of the Corollary
  • Santo Domingo (now Dominican Republic)
    • Island went bankrupt and European nations threatened to intervene to collect money owed
    • TR est American supervision of customs money and US bankers took over the country’s finances to repay debts
  • Under TR intervention in Latin America become common
    • Angered many Latin Americans and Congress
tr as peacemaker
TR as Peacemaker
  • TR’s chief concern in Asia was keeping open door policy with China
  • Russo-Japanese War in 1904 threatened this
    • TR was concerned about growing power of Japanese
    • Part of reason for Gentleman’s Agreement
    • Aug 1905 TR mediated a peace agreement in Russo-Japanese War
    • Kept trade in China open to all nations
    • Won him the Nobel Peace Prize
foreign policy after tr
Foreign Policy After TR
  • William Howard Taft (Pres in 1908)
    • Not as aggressive at pursuing foreign policy
    • “Dollar Diplomacy” substituting dollars for bullets
      • Maintaining orderly societies through US investment in other countries
      • Not too successful
      • Results were not always profitable
woodrow wilson
Woodrow Wilson
  • “Moral Diplomacy” US applied moral and legalistic standards to foreign policy
    • Mexico: new president that promised democratic reforms and was overthrown and killed in 1913 by Gen Huerta
    • Wilson refused to recognize him
    • Wilson supported Carranza and sent in American navy (April 1914)
    • July 1914 Huerta resigned and Carranza took over
more involvement in mexico
More involvement in Mexico
  • “Pancho” Villa: peasant rebel leader
    • March 9, 1916 led men into Columbus, NM and burned town, killing >15
    • Wilson sent American troops into Mexico to find “Pancho” Villa
    • Carranza demanded they leave
    • Gen Pershing (US) failed to find him and Wilson withdrew his troops in 1917
Moral Diplomacy was not successful
    • Mexico adopted constitution that curbed foreign ownership of Mexico’s resources
    • Many American and Mexican lives were lost
    • American financial interests there had lost ground
17 4 debating america s new role
17.4 Debating America’s New Role
  • Anti-Imperialists
    • 1898 formed Anti-Imperialist League
    • Moral and Political Arguments
      • Expansionist behavior was a rejection of “liberty for all”
      • Others said “the Constitution must follow the flag” and should apply to all US territories
      • Imperialism threatened the nation’s democratic foundations
Racial Arguments
    • Imperialism encouraged racism
    • Some feared the mixing that would occur in the US with these territories
  • Economic Arguments
    • Involved too many costs
      • Maintaining the military would require more taxation, debt, and possibly compulsory military service
      • Laborers coming into the US competed with Americans for jobs
imperialists views
Imperialists’ Views
  • Imperialism kept hold on American imagination
    • Keep us from losing our competitive edge
    • Celebration of American tradition and creative spirit
  • “Frontier mentality” with the Boy Scout movement
  • Some said the people of the territories were not ready for their own democracy
  • Practical advantages
    • Economic arguments about foreign markets
    • Strategic military reasons
  • The Great White Fleet: TR sent part of US Navy around the world in Dec 1907
    • Showed benefits of having powerful navy
views of us imperialism abroad
Views of US Imperialism Abroad
  • Often had to defend govs that were unpopular with local inhabitants
  • Panamanians began to complain that they suffered from discrimination
  • Other countries began to turn to US for help maintaining their independence
  • US spent rest of century trying to decide best way to reconcile its growing power and national interests with its relationships with other nations