Becoming a World Power. Chapter 23 Section 1. US Expansion. After expanding west the Pacific Coast, many American leaders believed we should join Europe in settling colonies abroad.
After expanding west the Pacific Coast, many American leaders believed we should join Europe in settling colonies abroad.
Imperialism: policy by which stronger nations extend their economic, political, or military control over weaker territories
Europe had been settling colonies for centuries, including Africa in the in the 19th century.
Liberia and Ethiopia remained independent
European countries competed with Japan in the Pacific.
Three main reasons drove approval for imperialism:
Economic Interest: Cheap raw materials, new markets for agriculture products.
Military Interests: Urged by foreign policy experts to go hand-in-hand with economic interests.
Cultural Superiority: Many Americans believed their culture, government, religion, and even race was superior.
Strong backer of expansion under Lincoln and Johnson.
In 1867, arranges purchase of Alaska from Russia
Alaska was purchased for $7.2 million.
Although the deal is largely criticized, the territory is resource-rich and a great deal.
Christian missionaries from US moved to Kingdom of Hawaii to convert local population.
Some of these missionaries started sugar plantations, giving birth to generations of wealthy plantation owners who dominated the economy.
Became leader of Hawaii in 1891
Believed planter class had too much influence
Inspires a revolt against planters, but ends up giving up thrown in 1895
US trade laws changed to favor sugar grown in American States.
American planters in Hawaii retaliated with US Marines in 1893, overthrowing the Queen and setting up their own government.
The new government requested to be annexed.
Pearl Harbor was an important refueling station for American military and merchant ships.
Benjamin Harrison receives annexation request in 1893
Before the Senate could act, Grover Cleveland becomes president and withdraws the treaty.
By the end of the 19th century, Spain is beginning to crumble
Spain had controlled most of Americas, including land that became part of US
In the 1890s, Spain still owned Philippine Islands, Cuba, and Puerto Rico
Ongoing depression in 1895 increased Cuba’s anger over Spanish rule.
Jose Marti helps organize rebellion from New York and returns to Cuba
He is killed shortly after by Spanish troops
Sent by Spain to crush rebellion
Forced many Cubans into Spanish guarded camps
Thousands died of starvation and disease in the camps
American business leaders and citizens became concerned over the fighting and brutality
Two newspapers in particular stirred emotions:
- the World – owned by Joseph Pulitzer
- the New York Journal – owned by William Randolph Hearst
The papers were able to attract widespread attention by exaggerating Spanish brutality.
President McKinley, being a veteran of the Civil War (1860’s) did not want to go to war.
However, public opinion forced McKinley to take action, demanding Spain stop its harsh treatment of Cubans
Spain eventually brought General Weyler home, but harsh treatment continued
January 1898, McKinley sends the Maine to Cuba
Riots broke out in Havana, Cuba so McKinley sends Maine to protect US citizens.
The following month (February 1898), the Maine exploded in Havana’s harbor
260 sailors are killed
Cause is unknown, but most historians believe it was an accident
McKinley signed congressional resolution (April 20, 1898).
Resolution called for Cuban independence and withdrawal of Spanish troops
Spain is given 3 days to comply
First major battle takes place in a Spanish colony in the Philippine islands
Many Filipinos had also revolted against Spanish rule in the 1890s.
The revolt attracted the attention of Theodore Roosevelt (at this time, he is assistant secretary of navy).
He puts Commodore George Dewey on alert in Hong Kong
Spanish-American War begins and Dewey sets out for Manila (capital of Philippines).
Battle of Manila begins morning of May 1, 1898
By noon, Dewey’s forces had destroyed Spanish fleet and killed or wounded 380 Spanish sailors
No Americans were killed.
With help from Filipino rebels, US troops take control of Manila in August
Within four months, American forces go from 28,000 to 280,000 (including Theodore Roosevelt)
Roosevelt organizes First United States Volunteer Cavalry nicknamed Rough Riders.
Gather with 16,000 other soldiers in Tampa, Florida
Nearly a quarter are African-American
Set out for Santiago, a stronghold in southern Cuba
As they arrive in Cuba, many soldiers come down with tropical diseases.
Key to taking control of Santiago
Begin attack on July 1
African-American soldiers begin driving Spanish back as the Rough Riders join and help capture the hill.
American ships destroy Spain’s fleet as they try to escape Santiago Harbor.
City surrenders on July 17
A week later US forces take Puerto Rico
Spain signs truce on August 12th, 1898
US demands Spain give up other colonies: Puerto Rico, island of Guam, and the Philippines.
Final treaty signed in Paris (December 1898)
Philippines becomes an American colony, infuriating many Filipinos who expected independence
Led a revolt against American troops
American troops finally calm revolt in 1902
US is reluctant to grant Cuba complete independence
Cuba had to adopt Platt Amendment to its constitution
Amendment allowed US to intervene in Cuban affairs anytime there was a threat to “life, property, and individual freedom.”
Cuba must also allow US naval base at Guantanamo Bay
Becomes American territory
US sets up government and appoints officials
US finally grants Puerto Rico self-governing rights and grants Puerto Ricans US citizenship in 1917
US treatment of Spain’s former colonies disappoints many Americans, including Carnegie, Jane Addams, and writer Mark Twain
These well known Americans, along with others, join Anti-Imperialist League.
Held belief that America should allow others to govern themselves
Devoted life to obtaining self-government for Puerto Rico
Fought with both Spain and US over governing rights