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Becoming a World Power. Chapter 5. Panama Canal. Sec 1: The Imperialist Vision. Building Support for Imperialism After the Civil War America did not have any interest in expanding outside the U.S…. Just wanted to reconstruct the South.

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sec 1 the imperialist vision
Sec 1: The Imperialist Vision

Building Support for Imperialism

  • After the Civil War America did not have any interest in expanding outside the U.S…. Just wanted to reconstruct the South.
  • However, lot of European countries were expanding overseas, this was called New Imperialism.
  • Imperialism- the economic and political domination of a strong nation over weaker ones.

High tariff in industrialized nations reduce trade, forcing companies to look for overseas places to invest their capital.

  • They began exerting control over territories, creating some colonies…. Protectorates.
  • Under this system, imperial power protected local rulers against rebellions and invasions.
  • In return rulers accepted European’s advice on how to govern their countries.
feeling of superiority
Feeling of Superiority
  • Many ideas encourage Americans to expand.
  • Anlgo-Saxonimsideas were related to the Manifest Destiny
  • Americans new they had to built a bigger and stronger navy if not they were going to be shut down from acquiring bases overseas.
  • Officer Alfred T. Mahan helped built public support for the idea.
american expansion in the pacific
American Expansion in the Pacific
  • In 1852 Pre. Millard Fillmore ordered Commodore Mathew C. Perry to negotiate a trade with Japan.
  • In 1853 warship entered Tokyo Bay, after seeing the warship Japan realized they were not powerful enough.
  • In 1854, Japan signed the Treaty of Kanagawa, giving US trading rights at two Japanese ports.
annexing hawaii
Annexing Hawaii
  • In 1878 missionaries from New England arrived at HI
  • Excellent for Sugarcane
  • By mid 1800s, business men established plantations
  • A recession struck HI in 1872
  • 3 yrs later, worried that HI could ask British or French for help; US signed a treaty exempting Hawaiian sugar from tariff.
  • After the treaty expired, the Senate insisted that HI grant the US exclusive rights to naval base at PEARL HABOUR.
  • Effect: The treaty led to a boom in Hawaiian sugar industry & wealth for the planters

In 1877, planters pushed for a constitution that limited the king’s authority.

  • Later to become part of the U.S.

Queen Liliuokalani disliked the influence of American settlers

  • In 1893, tried to impose a new const. asserting her as ruler
  • Effect: Planters w/ the support of Marines from the USS Boston forced the Queen to step down
  • Set a provisional government and asked the US to annex HI
  • Opposition: Pre. Cleveland opposed to imperialism/ tried to return the power to the Queen,
  • Once Pre. Cleveland term was over

US annex HI.

latin america
Latin America
  • Secretary of State James G. Blaine supported the idea of ……
  • Pan-Americanims- idea that Latin America and US should work together.
  • Conference of 1889 :
  • Create a custom union reuniting all nations to treat each other equal in trade.
  • Create a system for nation to workout disputes together.

- Latin America rejected both ideas but agreed to promote cooperation among nations……today known as Organization of American States (OAS)

sec 2 spanish american war
Sec. 2 Spanish-American War
  • During the Spanish-American War, The U.S defeated Spanish troops in Cuba and the Philippines. After, the US annexed the Philippines and became an imperial power.
the cuban rebellion begins
The Cuban Rebellion Begins
  • Cuba and Puerto Rico = Spain’s last remaining colonies in the Americas
  • Sugar plantations
  • In 1866 Cuba declares independence and launched a guerrilla war against Spanish authorities
causes of the war
Causes of the war

1. The Cuban Rebellion against Spain

2. American desire to protect its investments in Cuba

3. Yellow journalism that intensified public anger at Spain

4. The explosion of the USS Maine

the cuban rebellion begins1
The Cuban Rebellion Begins
  • José Martí, and others came to the US
  • They raised funds, purchased weapons, and trained troops in preparation for an invasion of Cuba
  • 1890s- US & Cuba (great economic relations)
  • Cuba exported sugar to the US, invested about $50 million in sugar plantation, mines, railroads

However, in 1894, US imposed a new tariff on sugar that devastated Cuba’s economy.

  • Martí, launched a new rebellion in Feb 1895, he died in combat but established Republic of Cuba in 1895.
america supports cuba
America supports Cuba
  • Pre. Grover Cleveland declared the US neutral
  • However, many people supported the rebels & compared it to the American Revolution.
  • Influence of nation’s major newspapers:
  • New York Journal (William Randolph Hearst) / New York World (Joseph Pulitzer)

- In both writers exaggerated about terrible conditions in Cuba and made up stories to attract reader, yellow journalisms.


Spain sent 200,000 troops to the island to put down the rebellion and appointed Gen. ValerianoWeyler as governor.

  • Americans had business in Cuba, Cuban hoped for American intervention to stop the war.
call for war
Call for War
  • In 1897, Rep. William McKinley became Pre. 1897-1901
  • Didn’t want to intervene, believing it would cost too many lives and hurt American economy
  • 1897-the Pre. Ask Spain to

end the war otherwise US will intervene


Spain gave Cuba-Autonomy- the right to their own government- only if remained part of Spain.

  • This angered many people and riots began
  • In 1898- worried that Americans living in Cuba might be attacked, Pre. McKinley sent USS Maine to Havana in case Americans needed to be evacuated
  • Mysteriously the ship explored and sank
remember the maine
“Remember the Maine”
  • Pres. McKinley wanted to go to war
  • Congress authorized to spend $50 million for war preparations
  • April 11, 1898- McKinley asked Congress for war
  • April 19, Congress proclaimed Cuba as independent/ demanded Spain to withdraw April 24, Spain declared war on the US… after 50 yrs US was on war again.
the battle of manila bay
The Battle of Manila Bay
  • May 1, 1898- 4 American ships entered Manila Bay in Philippines they opened fire & destroyed 8 Spanish ships
  • US sent 20,000 troops on they way seized the island of Guam.
  • With the help of Emilio Aguinaldo (Filipino revolutionary leader who had staged an unsuccessful uprising against the Spanish) Americans troops seized the Philippine capital of Manila
american forces in cuba
American Forces in Cuba
  • Conflict between American & Spanish in Santiago deCuba
  • After 2 weeks of fighting, American troops in Santiago surrendered
  • Among the soldiers was a cavalry unit “Rough Riders” from the west
      • Theodore Roosevelt was 2nd in Command
  • After, American troops occupied the colony of Puerto Rico.
  • Treaty of Paris ( Dec. 10, 1898)- Cuba became an independent nation, & the US acquired Puerto Rico & Guam and agreed to pay Spain $20 million for the Philippines
platt amendment proposed by pre mckinley repealed in 1934
Platt Amendment (Proposed by Pre. McKinley) (repealed in 1934)
  • Allowed Cubans to prepared a new constitution but attached conditions:
  • Could not make any treaty with another nation that would weaken its independence
  • Had to allow the US to buy or lease naval stations
  • Its debt had to be kept low to prevent foreign countries from landing troops to enforce payment
  • US would have the right to intervene to protect Cuban independence and keep order
puerto rico
Puerto Rico
  • Foraker Act- established a civil government for the island
  • Provided an elected legislature, governor and executive council (appointed by US president)
  • United States stated that Puerto Ricans were not citizens and did not possess constitutional rights
  • 30 yrs later, they were allowed to elect their won governor and granted US citizenship
  • Emilio Aguinaldo believed that US governance of his country was a “violent & aggressive seizure”
  • March 1901, Americans captured him
  • US allowed the Filipinos a greater role in governing their own country
  • By 1930s they were permitted to elect their own congress and president
  • 1946- US granted independence to the Philippines
sec 3 new american diplomacy
Sec. 3 New American Diplomacy

Succeeding Pre. McKinley, Pre. Theodore Roosevelt mediated disputes in Asia & Latin America and acquired the Panama Canal Zone

President Taft and Wilson worked to increased American trade and influence in Latin America.

open door policy
Open Door Policy
  • In 1894 war erupted b/w China & Japan over Korea
  • Japan gained Manchuria from China.
  • Russia (with the help of Britain/ France/ Germany) forced Japan to return the Manchurian territory.
  • In 1898 Russia demanded China lease the territory to Russia.

Russians were concerned about Japan’s rising power.

  • Russia did not want Japan to get Manchuria b/c it bordered Russia.
  • Backed by France and Germany, Russia forced Japan to return the Manchurian territory it has acquired.
  • In 1898, Russia demanded China lease the territory to Russia.
  • This was still part of China
  • Soon Germany, France, Britain also demanded.
the open door policy
The Open Door Policy
    • “leasehold” became known as a country’s sphere of influence= an area where a foreign nation controlled economic development.
  • Pres. McKinley supported this policy (where all countries would be allowed to trade with China)
boxer rebellion
Boxer Rebellion
  • While foreign countries debated access to China’s market
  • Secret Chinese society organized to fight foreign control and influence.
  • They wanted to destroy “foreign evils” and the Chinese Christians converts who they believe were corrupting society.
  • Were known as “Boxer Rebellion”- killed more than 200 foreigners.
  • After the German ambassador was killed 8 countries intervened: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Britain, France, Italy, Japan, Russia, and the U.S.
roosevelt and taft s diplomacy
Roosevelt and Taft's Diplomacy
  • The election of 1900 Jennings Bryan (anti-imperialist) vs. President McKinley (imperialist)  McKinley won
  • On September 6, 1901 while visiting Buffalo New York. McKinley was attacked by Leon Czolgosz
    • Theodore Roosevelt took over the presidency.
  • Helped Japan and Russia reach a peace conference in Portsmouth, New Hampshire.
    • Roosevelt won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1906.
speak softly and carry a big stick
“Speak softly and carry a big stick”
  • In 1901 the U.S signed the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty= gave the U.S the exclusive right to build any proposed canal through Central America.
  • 1903 Panama was Colombia’s most northern province.
    • French company had begun the digging of a canal, sold it to the US
  • The led to the Roosevelt Corollary

- U.S would intervene in Latin American affairs when necessary to maintain economic and political stability in the Western Hemisphere.


After Roosevelt, William Howard Taft continued Roosevelt Corollary

  • Taft believed that Latin America should be helped economically  Dollar Diplomacy.
    • Emphasis on military force.
    • He believed that if business leaders supported Latin American developments, American business would increase their trade and profits, and countries in Latin America would rise out of poverty & social disorder.