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Mammalogy (Fall 2013 Althoff - reference FDVM Chapters 6 & 8). LEC 07. Biological Rhythms Skin: Hair & Glands. Biological Rhythms. _______ rhythms --a period of 24 hours _________ rhythms--a period of about 1 year _________ rhythms--anything less than 24 hours. Circadian Rhythms.

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Biological rhythms skin hair glands

Mammalogy (Fall 2013 Althoff - reference FDVM Chapters 6 & 8)

LEC

07

Biological Rhythms Skin: Hair & Glands


Biological rhythms
Biological Rhythms

  • _______rhythms--a period of 24 hours

  • _________ rhythms--a period of about 1 year

  • _________ rhythms--anything less than 24 hours


Circadian rhythms
Circadian Rhythms

  • __________ patterns--active mostly during the daylight hours

  • ___________--active peaks during darkness, rests during daylight

  • __________ activity--dawn & dusk hours are peak activity periods


Circadian rhythms activity patterns
Circadian Rhythms: Activity Patterns

  • Influenced by a) __________ pressure b) peak of ________ availability c) ___________ status 1) mating status 2) most mammals give birth during “inactive” period


Activity patterns con t
Activity Patterns…con’t

  • DAYTIME Advantage: Disadvantage:


Activity patterns con t1
Activity Patterns…con’t

  • NIGHTTIME Advantage: higher ________ enhances olfactory communication reduced ________ stress reduced __________________Disadvantage: vision (color) __________


Circannual
Circannual

  • Influences _________________ CYCLE

  • Influences _________________ PATTERN

  • Primary cue is probably _______________ by influencing hormone changes which alter: a) physiology b) morphology c) behavior


Photoperiod influence on
Photoperiod influence on...

  • ____________--increased levels of reproduction hormones, influences level of “reproductive” readiness

  • ____________--change in pelage, enlarged (and scrotal) testes, antler development

  • ____________--increased aggression, maternal-type responses (nest building, etc.)


Other influences
Other influences...

  • ______________: beach mouse uses lower temps as cue to breed

  • ______________: montane vole reproduction triggered by presence of 6-MBOA (6-methoxybenzoaxazolinone) in fresh plant shoots. Influences number and size of litters (p152, Table 8.1)


6-MBOA affects reproduction effort

(Microtus montanus)

Table 8.1 (p153)


Ultradian
Ultradian

  • ____________: some show 6 to 12 evenly spaced short activity bouts per 24-hour day

  • Rheus macaques: observed only during daylight (active) period…with bouts lasting 40-45 minutes.

  • In general…still ________ understood, including their significance to survival.


Movements in meters

Activity rhythm of female meadow vole

(Microtus pennsyvlanicus)

Fig. 8.10 (p154)


Hey...HAIR

&

GLANDS!

Skin: Hair & GlandsReference FDVM Chapter 6


Mammalian characteristics associated with the skin
________ Mammalian Characteristics Associated with the Skin

  • HAIR

  • SWEAT GLANDS

  • SEBACEOUS GLANDS

  • SCENT GLANDS

  • MAMMARY GLANDS



Hair

  • Has its origin in the dermal layer (dermis)

  • Consists of dead epidermal cells strengthened by keratin (a tough, horny tissue made of protein)

  • Functions: a) insulation b) sensory c) camouflage d) defense e) aggression


= epidermis

= dermal

= subcutaneous

1

2

3

Cells “invaginate”,

In the epidermis

“Hair” projects

downward as

well as grows up

Rooted in

subcutaneous

layer

HAIR DEVELOPMENT

Pigment

cells

Mescenchmal

aggregation

Hair

cone

Mescenchmal

aggregation

Hair

bulb

Papilla


Sweat glands
Sweat Glands

  • Has its origin in the dermal layer (dermis)

  • Functions: __________________________________

  • Two types: a) eccrine--separate duct at surface; usually well distributed over body b) apocrine--duct at exit point (pore) of hair; armpits, anogenital region, naval, nipples, & ears (in primates); in ears: modified to produce wax


FDVM p98, Fig. 6.2

Eccrine sweat pore

DERMIS

Apocrine

Sweat duct

Sweating part of

apocrine sweat gland

Secreting part of

eccrine sweat gland


Sweat glands con t
Sweat Glands…con’t

  • Distribution over body surface varies—usually where there is less hair a) __________--all over body b) __________--pads of feet c) __________--feet and/or venter d) ______________________ -- do not have any e) ________ on head only f) ______________________________ _______ do not have any


Sebaceous glands
Sebaceous Glands

  • Associated with ________________

  • Produce and secrete oils a) positioned by erector pili muscles b) muscle moves, forces oil around shaft of hair

  • Functions: a) ________________ b) ________________

  • Lanolin produced by sheep unique

  • Hartner’s gland: lub for eyes & nictitating membrane


FDVM p60, Fig. 5.2

DERMIS

Sebaceous gland


Scent musk glands
Scent (musk) Glands

  • Either modified ______ glands or modified ____________ glands

  • Functions: a) ________ b) ______________ c) _______________ d) _______________

  • Distribution varies (chin-to-tail): a) skunk: ____________ b) wolves & coyotes: __________ c) ungulates: _____________


Mammary glands
Mammary Glands

  • Also known as ____________

  • Elaborate , elongated duct system with hollow sacs at end: a) alveolus--individual sac b) lobules of andular tissue--group of alveoli

  • Function: _________________


first rib

skin cut

pectoralis major muscle

suspensory ligament

adipose tissue

lobe

areola

nipple

opening of

lactiferous duct

pleural cavity

lactiferous sinus

lactiferous duct

_________________

__________________


EUTHERIAN (placentals)

human

UNGULATE

MONOTREME

Alveoli

  • nipples

  • teats

  • No nipples

  • No teats

  • Milk oozes out

  • onto skin


MAMMARY

TISSUE

showing

individual

_________

LOBULE

OF

ALVEOLI

LOBULE

OF

ALVEOLI


Mammary glands con t
Mammary Glands…con’t

  • Always on ventral side a) primates: 2 thoracic mammae b) perissodactyls: 2 inguinal mammae c) most rodents: 5 pairs on belly (chest to groin) d) NA opossum: 13 (12 in circle, 1 in center of circle) e) whales: mammary grooves


Milk production
Milk Production

  • __________ is hormone that stimulates milk production

  • __________ is hormone that stimulates milk letdown

  • Milk content varies in protein & fat content a) b) c)


Bottlenose dolphin
Bottlenose Dolphin

  • Found in warm temperate and tropical oceans and seas worldwide

  • 150 – 200 kg (330-440 lbs.)

  • Gestation period just 12 months, then nurses young for 12-18 months in wild, longer in captivity

  • Diet includes squid, shrimp, eels, and a wide variety of fishes (carnivorous)


_________ in

milk fat and milk water over the course of lactation in bottlenose dolphin

Milk fat

Dolphin K

Milk water

Milk Constituent %

Dolphin P

West et al. 2007

Journal of Zoology

273:148-160 (Fig. 1)

Month of Lactation


________ in

milk protein and milk sugar over the course of lactation in bottlenose dolphin

Dolphin K

Milk protein

Milk sugar

Milk Constituent %

Dolphin P

West et al. 2007

Journal of Zoology

273:148-160 (Fig. 2)

Month of Lactation


Eastern barred bandicoot
Eastern barred bandicoot

  • Native to Australia (Victoria) & Tasmania

  • Medium-sized omnivorous marsupial (~1 kg)

  • Gestation period just 12 days, then nursed for ~55 days before weaned


_________ in

milk content

over weeks

3-9 of lactation in eastern barred

bandicoot

Lipids = fat

Total solids

Protein

Carbohydrate

Ikonomopoulou et al. 2005

Australian J. of Zoology

53:59-65 (Fig. 1)


Milk content by species selected from fdvm table 6 1 p103
MILK CONTENT (%) by Species(selected from FDVM Table 6.1, p103)

WaterProteinFatSugarAsh

Kangaroo

73.5 9.7 8.1 3.1 1.5

Human

88.0 1.2 3.8 7.0 0.2

Rabbit

71.3 12.3 13.1 1.9 2.3

Rat

72.9 9.2 12.6 3.3 1.4

Harp seal

43.8 11.9 42.8 0.0 0.9

B-n dolphin

44.9 10.6 34.9 0.9 0.5

W.t. deer

65.9 10.4 19.7 2.6 1.4

Giraffe

77.1 5.8 12.5 3.4 0.9

Note: ASH = not water & not organic


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