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HAIR CARE. Assoc. Prof. Dr.Pleumchitt Rojanapanthu Pharmacy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand. Women from all around the world choose hair styles to their type of hair. Hair our personalities, whichever race we come from. Hair. Getting to know hair

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hair care


Assoc. Prof. Dr.Pleumchitt RojanapanthuPharmacy Department,

Faculty of Pharmacy Mahidol University,

Bangkok, Thailand


Women from all around the world choose hair styles to their type of hair. Hair our personalities, whichever race we come from



  • Getting to know hair
      • Types of hair
      • Hair structure
      • Hair growth cycle

Hair (con.)

  • Hair Color
  • Physical properties of hair
  • Chemical properties of hair

Hair Care Products

  • Shampoos
  • Conditioners
  • “2 in 1” shampoos
  • Hair sprays

Hair Care Products (con.)

  • Hair gels
  • Perming solutions
  • Hair dyes
  • etc.
  • General remarks about product development
getting to know hair
Getting to Know Hair

All Land mammals (including) humans

  • have hairy skins

Hair characteristics are inherited directly

from our parents

  • hair color
  • hair type

The same as your eyes & your skin


Hair distribution

  • Human are covered all over in hair except on

the palms of hands

the sole of the feet

the lips

  • Hair is most obvious on the head and face

including the nose and ears in some people

the armpits / the groin

the chest and legs (in men)


How much hair do we have

  • Average : 100,000-150,000 hair follicles

Baby’s head : 1,100 follicles/m2

Age 25 : ~ 600/m2

Age 30-50 : ~ 250-300/m2

  • Each follicle grow about 20 new hairs in lifetime
  • Each new hair grows several year 1 meter
  • Each hair falls out eventually and is replaced

by a new hair


Variation in human hair

  • Different people have hair that differs in color, length diameter, distribution
  • Influence factors :

Racial type


Types of hair

3 types

Lanuga hair

  • develops on an unborn baby
  • 3 months after the baby’s conception
  • fine and soft
  • grows all over the body, at the same rate
  • shed about 4 weeks before the baby is due to born
Vellus hairs
  • short hair, only 1 or 2 cm. Long
  • contains little or no pigment
  • follicle doesn’t have oil glands
  • never produce any kind of hairs

Terminal hairs

  • long hairs that grow on the head, body arms

and legs

  • produced by follicles with sebaceous glands
  • people inherited a tendency to baldness the
  • hair become thinner and shorter until look

like vellus hair


Vellus hairs on a woman’s chin. These are normal when female

hormones decline, hairs on the chin can grow as strongly as terminal hairs

Variation with age


Newly born full-term baby

  • Terminal hairs grow on the scalp &eyebrows
  • All the rest of hair is vellus hair
  • Baby grows the hair on the head grows
  • Hair growth begin at the forehead then

extends to the back

2-3 months old baby

- first hair may be shed naturally over an area

on the back of the head

- was thought to be head rubbing

Hair broken by rubbing

- may found in other part of the head


Naturally occurring hair loss, which

begins at age 8-12 weeks

Mosaic patterns starting to develop;

the beginning of hair streams can also

be seen


First year baby

  • allhairs on the head grow at the same rate
  • head carries an even covering of hair
  • individual hair begin to grow independently
  • grow at different rate and different cycles

Features of children hair

  • unruly hair which sticks straight up
  • natural curls
  • hair without pigment


Before puberty :

- Scalp carries a mixture of short vellus-like hair

and longer terminals hairs together with various

‘in between’ hair

At puberty :

- Terminal hairs begin to appear in thearmpit,

groin & legs chin,chest & forearm


After puberty :

  • most of scalp hair are terminal hairs
  • thicker in diameter

Middle age and beyond

  • thehairs continue to grow strongly/hair

at 80 = at 50

  • the hairs get thinner as the age/at 80s

only a few wisps remain


Hair Structure

Hair follicle

  • a tiny cup-shaped pit burried deep in the
  • fat of the scalp
  • follicle is the point from which the hair grows
  • well supplied with minute blood vessels
  • temperature is normal body temperature

Hair Structure (con.)

  • temperature is not affected by cold or hot water
  • the rate of growth depends on the

amount of natural light : growing a little faster in winter when the days are short

Hair follicle Hair bulb

Hair shaft

Hair bulb

- lines in side the hair follicle

- is a structure of actively growing cells

- produce a long fine cylinder of hair

- new cells are continuously produced in the lower

part of the bulb


(a) Longitudinal section of a hair within its follicle.

(b) Enlarged longitudinal section of a hair.


(c) Enlarged longitudinal view of the expanded hair bulb of

the follicle which encloses the matrix, actively dividing epithelial

cells that produce the hair.


Scanning electron micrograph showing a hair shaft emerging from a follicle at the epidermal surface. Notice how the scalelike cells of the cuticle overlap one another (1500 x).


The Hair Shaft

  • can be seen above the scalp
  • consist mainly of dead cell Keratin

+ binding material + small amount of water

  • terminal hairs are lubricated by natural oil (sebum) produced by sebaceous glands
  • high level of hormones (androgens) high level of sebum

Nature of cuticle

  • scales growing over the youngest part

(closet to the scalp) are smooth and unbroken further along the hair have been damaged by

cosmetic treatments and by mistreatment : (over-energetic brushing)


Nature of cuticle (con.)

  • little by little, they may break away :


  • healthy cuticle is more than just a protective layer
  • intact cuticle cells are smooth, glossy, and reflect light from their surface (black hair reflects less light than blond hair)

A perfect hair seen under the

electron microscope

Another normal hair - but this came

from one of our nearest relatives

an orangutan!


Hair shape

  • keratin chains link by : disulphide bond and hydrogen bonds
  • disulphide bonds can be changed by chemical methods : perming and relaxing permanent

Hair shape (con.)

  • hydrogen bonds can be easily broken apart

whenever the hair is wetted and form again

as it dries

  • when they break the shape of hair changes
  • wet hair is wound on the roller, the dried hair keep the roller shape temporary

Hair dimensions

  • European around 70-90 micron
  • Asian around 120 micron
  • People have average hair around

100,000 – 150,000 hairs


Hair growth cycle

  • individual hair form inside a hair bulb deep

in hair

  • follicle is tiny but powerful factory
  • each hair grows during many years
  • shampooed, conditioned, cut, blown dry, exposal to

the sun and wind, colored, bleached, permed none of these affected the hair growth


Hair growth cycle (con.)

  • the hair spontaneously falls out
  • the follicle rests for a little while and

starts to produce a new hair


Stage of the hair cycle

  • anagen : the growing phase (~1000 days)
  • catagen : the intermediate phase (~10 days)
  • telogen : the shedding phase (~100 days)

Anagen (the growing phase)

  • last between 3-7 years without interruption
  • roughly 1 cm/month > 1 meter
  • faster rate in winter than summer
  • melanin is made in hair bulb throughout

this phase


Anagen (con.)

  • less pigment is made in older people,

hair cycle becomes shorter

  • follicles gradually give up producing long,

strong hair :

  • hairs become thinner and shorter thinning

of the hair degree of baldness


Catagen (the intermediate phase)

  • short resting phase : 2-4 weeks
  • no pigment is made
  • follicles stop producing hair
  • the base of follicle moves upwards

towards the surface of the skin


Telogen (the shedding phase)

  • lastfor 3-4 months
  • new hair begin to grow from the hair follicle
  • as it grow s upwards the old hair will be

shed naturally or easily be pulled out


Telogen (con.)

  • at anytime around one in ten of the follicles at individual’s head is in the shedding phase
  • shedding is part of normal process of the

replacement of old hair with new hair

  • new hair emerges from the same opening

as the old one


Each of these long hairs has been growing  for at least six years:

eventually it will fall out spontaneously; this growth and fall makes

up the hair cycle


Hair this long must have been growing for

seven or eight years: just look at its

beautiful condition

This man is head of a religious cult which

requires its leader to be able to grow his

hair long enough to reach the ground: his

anagen period is probably around ten or

twelve years. As he grows older and the

anagen period shortens, he may lose his


The golden hair of the imprisoned fairy-tale

princess Rapunzel was long enough to allow

her lover to climb it in order to reach her in

her tower - a demonstration not only of the

length of anagen in Rapunzel, but also of the

inherent strength of hair


A method of measuring the rate of hair growth: both cut

hairs and newly emerging hairs can be seen


What controls hair growth ?

  • general health and nutritional factors
  • starvation or crash diet loosing hair in 6-10


  • alcoholic people have poor hair
  • some minerals may particularly important

for hair growth


Hair growth (con.)

  • lack of Zn : produces only fine, sparse hairs

even lost their hairs

  • Vit B : known as panthenol, plays a

part in hair growth, improves

physical properties

(elasticity, strength and gloss)

of the hair shaft


Hormones :

  • thyroid hormone speeds up growth in

resting hair follicles

  • steroids taken by mouth slow down the growth

Hormones (con.)

  • Androgen : the most important factor regulating hair growth, thickness of hair shaft

: changes vellus - like hair

terminal hair

  • oestrogen : slow down hair growth during

growth period, make the period longer


This boy has a zinc deficiency, and his hair is very thin and sparse;

after treatment his hair is growing more strongly


Hair Color


Melanin : - produced by melanocytes at growing

phase (anagen)

- spread out throughout the cortex, the more near outer edge lie along the amino acid


- does not protect the harmful effect from


- is found in 2 forms


Pigmentation (con.)

  • Eumelanin : dark pigmented which

predominates in black and

brunette hair/oval shape

  • Phaeomelain : lighter pigment, found in red

and blond hair/smaller, partly

oval and partly rod- shape


Factors affecting hair structure :

  • the arrangement of keratin bundles the way the large bundles of keratin are

arranged within each hair shaft

  • the position of hair bulb :

African hair bulb may lie to the side of the

follicle, so the hair shaft grows out of the follicle at an acute angle


Factors affecting hair structure (con.)

  • irregular growth in the hair bulb : if it varies slightly to one side or the other, hair may grow wavy
  • the shape of the follicle : whether it is straightor curved
  • the number of twists per unit length :

African hair has 12 times as many twist per cm.

as Caucasian hair


Physical properties of hair

  • Strength
  • Elasticity
  • Static electricity
  • Moisture content
  • Porosity
  • Texture

Hair strength

  • a single hair can support a load of about 100 gm
  • keratin protein of the cortex responsible for the
  • hair strength
  • keratin is a protein chains contain high concentration of an amino acid called “cystine”
  • matrix contains high level of cystine

Hair strength (con.)

  • each cystine unit contains 2 cysteine amino acids in different chain
  • the chains are linked by two sulphur atoms,

forming a very strong chemical bond

“disulphide linkage”

  • many disulphide bonds form down the length

of the keratin chains



  • one of the most important properties
  • can resist forces that could change its

shape, volume and length

  • lest spring back to its original

form without damage

  • wet hair can increase the length up to 30%

and return to original length when it is dried


Elasticity (con.)

  • elasticity of hair depends on the long

keratin fibers in the cortex

  • chemical treatment can alter the cortex

and change the hair elasticity


Elasticity (con.)

  • poor elasticity :

- stretch only to a limited extent

- will break easily

- cannot be permed satisfactorily

  • natural sunlight and artificial UV light

damage chemicals of hair and its elasticity

Static electricity
  • rubbing drug hair / brushing / combing

builds up static electric charge

  • thecharges tend to push each other apart
  • charged hair never lie smooth against

each other “ fly away ” hair

  • stands out from the head
Moisture content :

Heat and humidity

  • more moisture
  • less static electricity
  • collapse

Heat and dryness

  • less moisture
  • more static electricity
  • more volume

Moisture content (con.)

- wet hair swell cortex / lift cuticle


- hair surface temporaly loses its smoothness

- wet hair more friction matting

and tangles (over vigorous shampoo)



Normal hair

  • cuticle covering cortex is intact : almost

water proof (very little water can go in

and out)

  • shampoos do not damage the cuticle
  • treating the hair (permed or tinted)

Porosity (con.)

  • temperature / applying an alkaline lotion

separate the scale

  • allowing chemicals to go inside
  • after processing scales close up

Porosity (con.)

  • processing many times / too much blow

drying/ too high temperative / effect

of sun and wind

the scales lose the tightness

the porous

damage cuticle is fragile

develop split end


Porosity (con.)

the damage is worse as the time goes by

the greater the damage, the more the

cortex swells with water

the more water loses when it dries

repeated wetting and drying of the

cortex, gradually weakens the hair



  • the larger the hair diameter the

coarser it will feel

  • different people’s hair naturally feel

different soft / hard / silky / wiry

  • effected by degree of weathering of hair

Texture (con.)

Texture is affected by what has been put on it :

- spray : makes different feeling

- conditioner : feel soft and smooth

- conditioner with silicone : protect the

hair cuticle

- damage to cuticle : alter the hair texture


Chemistry of Hair

  • Keratinization process in the follicle keratin + water soluble substances : pentose, phenols, uric acid, glycogen, glutamic acid, valine, leucine

Chemistry of Hair (con.)

  • Keratin is composed of amino acid
  • 18 out of 25 normal amino acids

are found in keratin


Chemistry of Hair (con.)

  • Organization of hair protein sets up by

bonding in 3 ways :

IFormation of H-bonds

between parallel peptide chains


Chemistry of Hair (con.)

II Formaton of salt linkage

between acidie and basic side chain


Chemistry of Hair (con.)

III Formates of disulphide linkages

  • amino acid contains two amino and two carlygl

groups link together by a disulphide bond