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Chapter 7

Chapter 7. National Growing Pains. Madison in Power. Election of 1808 Madison wins 122/173 electoral votes Republicans sweep congress Continued trouble with Britain Non-Intercourse Act difficult to enforce Macon’s Bill No. 2 (1810)

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Chapter 7

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  1. Chapter 7 National Growing Pains

  2. Madison in Power • Election of 1808 • Madison wins 122/173 electoral votes • Republicans sweep congress • Continued trouble with Britain • Non-Intercourse Act difficult to enforce • Macon’s Bill No. 2 (1810) • Removed all restrictions on trade with Britain and France • Barred British and French warships from American waters • President could reapply the principle of non-intercourse

  3. Madison in Power • Trade rose to pre-embargo levels • Trade with France limited due to British fleet • Napoleon’s revocation of Berlin and Milan decrees cause Madison to reapply non-intercourse with Britain • British refuse to modify Orders in Council • Madison painted himself in corner- US must declare war James Madison

  4. Tecumseh and the Indians • Americans believed Canada behind Indian attacks • Tecumseh and “The Prophet” • Indian organized resistance • Wm. Henry Harrison • Tippecanoe • War with Britain?

  5. Depression and Land Hunger • Prices dropping for western goods • Loss of markets due to British or American trade restrictions? • Burdensome transportation/distribution system • Expansionism – Canada and Florida? • Madison – war to force British to respect American rights? • Patriotic fervor – war to defend national honor

  6. Opponents of War • Federalists – opposed all Republican initiatives (Bush?) • Fear of British military power • British protection of America? • British depression resulted in suspension of the Orders in Council • No cause for war

  7. The War of 1812 • How to fight the war? • The Navy? Seven frigates versus 34 frigates and 7 ships of the line • Privateers- captured 1300+ British merchant ships • Canada • Three-pronged attack: Detroit, Niagara, and Montreal • Defeats put America on defensive • Battle of Lake Erie – Oliver Perry

  8. The USS Constitution – “Old ironsides”

  9. Britain on the Offensive • Surrender of Napoleon allowed Britain to direct full attention against US • 14,000 battle-hardened vets free to attack US • Three-pronged strategy • Attack from Montreal into NY • Feint against Chesapeake • Attack New Orleans

  10. Britain on the Offensive • Chesapeake • Landing in Maryland – US gunboats run away and destroyed • Battle of Bladensburg – US army runs away • Washington burned • British stopped at Baltimore • Bombardment of Fort McHenry • British withdraw

  11. Britain on the Offensive

  12. O say, can you see, by the dawn's early light,What so proudly we hailed at the twilight's last gleaming?Whose broad stripes and bright stars, thro' the perilous fight,O'er the ramparts we watched, were so gallantly streaming?And the rockets' red glare, the bombs bursting in air,Gave proof thro' the night that our flag was still there.O say, does that star-spangled banner yet waveO'er the land of the free and the home of the brave?

  13. Britain on the Offensive • Destruction of Washington caused dramatic increase in enlistments • Battle of Plattsburgh - destruction of British ships on Lake Champlain cause British to withdraw • The Treaty of Ghent – status quo ante bellum

  14. The Hartford Convention • Meeting of New England Federalists • Protested war and planned convention of the states to revise the constitution • New England against the war • Federalist-controlled state governments refused to provide militia and funds for the war • New England traded with Britain and Canada

  15. The Hartford Convention • New England banks would not loan US government money • Federalist extremists discussed secession • Federalists approved statement that a state has a right to interpose its authority to protect itself (VA & KY Resolutions) • What five constitutional amendments were proposed? See page 201

  16. The Battle of New Orleans • Importance of New Orleans • Andrew Jackson • Initial US attack on British camp was inconclusive • British reinforced • British attacked US fortifications – expected US army to run • British casualties 2100 versus 71 US

  17. In 1814 we took a little tripAlong with Colonel Jackson down the mighty Mississip.We took a little bacon and we took a little beansAnd we caught the bloody British in the town of New Orleans.[Chorus]We fired our guns and the British kept a'comin.There wasn't nigh as many as there was a while ago.We fired once more and they began to runnin' Down the Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico.We looked down the river and we see'd the British come.And there must have been a hundred of'em beatin' on the drum.They stepped so high and they made the bugles ring.We stood by our cotton bales and didn't say a thing.[Chorus]Old Hickory said we could take 'em by surpriseIf we didn't fire our muskets 'til we looked 'em in the eyeWe held our fire 'til we see'd their faces well.Then we opened up with squirrel guns and really gave 'em ... well [Chorus]Yeah, they ran through the briars and they ran through the bramblesAnd they ran through the bushes where a rabbit couldn't go.They ran so fast that the hounds couldn't catch 'emDown the Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico.**We fired our cannon 'til the barrel melted down.So we grabbed an alligator and we fought another round.We filled his head with cannon balls, and powdered his behindAnd when we touched the powder off, the gator lost his mind.[Chorus]Yeah, they ran through the briars and they ran through the bramblesAnd they ran through the bushes where a rabbit couldn't go.They ran so fast that the hounds couldn't catch 'emDown the Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico.**

  18. Victory Weakens the Federalists • Battle of New Orleans results in national euphoria • United States accepted as permanent actor on international stage • Indians main losers • Federalist Party crumbles • Peace in Europe brought economic revival and new European immigration • US turned inward

  19. James Madison

  20. Anglo-American Rapprochement • War brought US some measure of respect • Diplomatic problems now solved peacefully • Discriminatory duties ended • Rush-Bagot Agreement 1817 demilitarized the Great Lakes • Convention of 1818 – the 49th parallel agreed to as boundary • Oregon country to be jointly controlled

  21. Assignment • Create a Cause and Effect chart for the War of 1812 • Long range causes set the national mood for war like the Berlin Decree and Orders in Council • Short range causes are specific events that made us go to war like the attack on the USS Chesapeake • You do not need to enter anything for the War of 1812 • Immediate effects can be found in your textbook right after the War of 1812 • Long range effects are things that happened because of our new place in the world like the Rush-Bagot Treaty The War Of 1812 Long – Range Causes Immediate Causes Immediate Effects Long – Range Effects

  22. Transcontinental Treaty • 1816 – James Monroe elected president • Border problems with Florida • Indian raids - Seminoles • Escaped slaves • Monroe orders Jackson to follow if need be • Feeble Spain surrendered Florida to protect Mexican territory in west • John Quincy Adams negotiated line on Sabine, Red, and Arkansas Rivers and 42nd parallel to Pacific • Transcontinental Treaty 1819

  23. The Monroe Doctrine • Challenges to US territorial expansion • 1821 Russia claimed territory down to 51st parallel and forbade ships to enter waters • Europe discussed taking Latin America back for Spain (Principle of Legitimacy) • 1824 treaty Russia abandons claims south of Alaska and removes restrictions on ships

  24. The Monroe Doctrine • Britain also against European plans for Latin America due to extensive economic links • Britain wanted joint agreement with US to keep France out, pledge to stay out themselves, and not recognize new Latin republics • US responds with Monroe Doctrine

  25. The Monroe Doctrine • Monroe Doctrine • US would not interfere with any European colony • US would not involve itself in European affairs • Any attempt to extend European control in Western Hemisphere would be considered threat to US • US not powerful enough to back doctrine – British fleet could • Independence – Monroe Doctrine seen as final step in the establishment of the nation

  26. Era of Good Feelings • James Monroe elected president 1816 • Good-natured man perfect for era of peace and prosperity • Monroe Doctrine more a product of Sec State JQ Adams • Reconciliation of Adams & Jefferson • Made goodwill tour of New England - Why? • Presidency a period of harmony – superficial?

  27. New Sectional Issues • Disputes over banking, the tariff, federal land policy, and internal improvements • High tariffs • Import duties doubled to pay for war • Duties kept at end of war – protected US textile industries against British dumping • All for high tariffs except New England • The South came to oppose tariffs – hurt cotton trade

  28. New Sectional Issues • National Banking Policy • National Bank charter not renewed in 1811 • State banks wanted business • Many state banks failed • Government business suffered • Second Bank of the United States authorized in 1816 • Poor management made bank unpopular

  29. New Sectional Issues • Land Policies • Land Act of 1800 – set $2 per acre as minimum price and 320 acres as smallest unit • Easy credit caused boom in land sales but resurgence of European agriculture caused prices to collapse • Westerners wanted cheap land, the North wanted limits fearing drain of surplus labor, and South feared agricultural competition

  30. New Sectional Issues • Internal Improvements • Only significant improvement was the National Road • Slavery • African slave trade abolished in 1808 • Free and slave states added to union in equal numbers • Boom in cotton caused South to support slavery more aggressively

  31. Assignment • Founding fathers dead or aged • New national leaders • Create a chart comparing Northern, Southern, and Western leaders. List their beliefs, accomplishments, and character

  32. The Missouri Compromise • Missouri ready to enter the union • Majority of population Southern • NY Congressman Tallmadge introduced amendment prohibiting slavery • Senate rejected amendment • Northerners objected to slave state extending north of the Ohio River

  33. The Missouri Compromise • North objected to new slave state based on 3/5 rule – inflated representation • Compromise in 1820 admitted Missouri as slave state and Maine as free state • To prevent further conflict, slavery prohibited north of 36 degrees latitude • Arkansas and Oklahoma to be slave

  34. The Missouri Compromise • Missouri submitted state constitution to Congress • Constitution forbade free blacks and mulattos entry to state – violated US constitution • Northern congressmen refused to accept constitution • Henry Clay worked out compromise • All saw that the Missouri controversy was an alarm bell

  35. The Election of 1824 • Candidates were Calhoun, Jackson, Crawford, Adams, and Clay • More personal contest rather than party • Calhoun withdrew • Crawford suffered series of strokes • Very little public interest – barely ¼ voted • Contest thrown into the House • Clay used influence to swing election to Adams

  36. John Quincy Adams • Wanted vast program of national improvements • Ambitious goals made people suspicious – fear of “Federalists” • Poor speaker and inept politician

  37. Calhoun’s Exposition and Protest • North and West wanted higher tariffs to protect industries • South wanted lower tariff • 1828 – new tariff proposed • South hoped to block bill with help from New England • “Tariff of Abominations” passed

  38. Calhoun’s Exposition and Protest • South Carolina passed resolutions denouncing tariff as unfair and unconstitutional • Calhoun wrote essay that argued states could nullify federal laws if states believed laws to be unconstitutional • Used John Locke’s concept of government as contractual relationship

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