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or should we say the great war part ii n.
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World War II

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  1. (or should we say the “Great War Part II”?) World War II

  2. Prelude to The Great Depression • WWI expensive • Two countries relied on American credit: France and Germany

  3. October 1929 – Stock Market Crash • International Catastrophe • Americans stopped issuing credit • Germany had no way to pay reparations • France therefore had no money either • U.S. and Germany hit hardest – 1/3 out of work

  4. Response • United States • 1932 elected Franklin Roosevelt • Strong political structure allowed for change • Germany (and Italy) • Democratic elective assemblies still shaky • Fascism takes root

  5. Fascism – Common Ideas • Destroy the individual in favor of “the people” • Unify society • Not concerned with eliminating identity characteristics such as class or private property • New identity pushed – relied on extreme nationalism and racial identity • Fascism (ideology) • Extreme nationalism • Single party (or person) control • Appeals to middle and upper classes, as well as unemployed (anti-communist) • Law, order and hard work at the expense of individuality • Nazism is a form of fascism, only more racist/anti-semetic

  6. Italy: Rise of Mussolini • 1919 - Founder of the National Fascist Party • “Blackshirts” fought socialist and communist organizations, winning support from factory and land owners • 1921 – many seated in parliament, Mussolini named Prime Minister • As the post-war economy failed to improve, Mussolini seized the opportunity to create a totalitarian regime by 1926

  7. Germany: Rise of Hitler • The Weimar Republic replaced the emperor after WWI • As Germany's economy collapsed (Treaty of Versailles), people lost faith in the “Reichstag” • As head of the Nazi Party, Hitler rose to power inspiring extreme nationalism • Espousing ideas of Social Darwinism and racism, Hitler called for the deportation (later elimination) of Slavs and Jews, and the takeover of Europe by Germans

  8. “Fuhrer” • By 1923, Nazis dominated German government • 1933, Hitler became “chancellor” of the Reichstag • Hitler seizes full control of the government, establishing the “Third Reich”, and set out to take over Europe • 1933 – began militarizing in clear violation of the Treaty of Versailles and withdrew from the League of Nations

  9. Similarities • Mussolini and Hitler’s Rise to Power • Fear of Communism • Democratic government failed to address economic depression (more so in Germany) • Appeal to Nationalism (it’s everyone else’s fault) • Lack of democratic tradition in respective countries • Used totalitarian means to gain power: terror & intimidation, secret police, censorship, propaganda

  10. Totalitarianism • What Fascist Hitler, Mussolini, Franco and Communists Lenin and Stalin all have in common: • Government where state (or one person/party) has ALL the power • While promising liberty, abolishes freedom (press, etc) • Police state • Propaganda vital • Grows usually where democracy fails • Communist and Fascist leaders can be totalitarian rulers

  11. Differences • Fascism under Mussolini • Winner in WWI – upset about lack of land granted after war • Heavy taxes to pay for war hurt economy • Inflation due to lack of goods • Less racist/anti-Semitic until end of war • Fascism (Nazism) under Hitler • Loser in WWI – anger at land loss • Reparations to pay after war hurt economy • Inflation due to printing too much money • More racist/anti-Semitic

  12. Appeasement • Nations of Europe ignored Hitler’s buildup, fearing another war • Germany and Italy supported Nationalists in Spain under Francisco Franco in overthrowing the Spanish Monarchy and parliamentary democracy, France and Britain turned a blind eye • Germany took back the Rhineland in 1935 • 1937 – German alliance with Japan • 1938 – Germany annexed Austria (Anschluss), threatened Sudetenland • ALL DONE UNDER THE CONCEPT OF “LEBENSRAUM”

  13. Munich Conference of 1938(more appeasement) • 1938 – Hitler, Mussolini, Neville Chamberlain (PM of England) all in attendance • Hitler given Sudetenland without the consent of the Czechs, as long as expansion stopped • Expansion stops (for 1 whole year!) before Hitler takes all of Czechoslovakia

  14. European Response • Britain and France signed a non-aggression pact with Greece, Turkey, Romania and Poland as Italy invaded Albania • Germans signed the Nazi-Soviet pact, insuring the Soviets would not intervene in German affairs, and a plan for dividing up parts of Europe between the both of them • Sept. 1939, Germany invaded Poland

  15. Guess What Happened Next?(Alliances – Not Again!!) Allied Powers Axis Powers • Great Britain • France • Later – Soviet Union and U.S. • (non-aggression pact with Greece, Turkey, Romania and Poland) • Germany • Italy • Japan • (non-aggression pact – Soviet Union)

  16. World War II: Tens of Millions Dead • Eastern Europe - Germany’s “blitzkrieg” devastating. Within 10 days Poland divided between Germany and Russia

  17. “Phony War” • Western Europe - 1939- April, 1940 - British and French strategy – await a German attack (defensive war) behind the “Maginot Line” along the Franco-German border

  18. Battles of France and Britain • Maginot Line failed to protect the border between France and Belgium • April, 1940 – Germany attacked Holland and Belgium, then France (Vichy Regime – Marshall Petain), controlling most of continental Europe by June • The British military was spared due to the evacuation at Dunkirk • Next stop for Germany: Great Britain itself

  19. Winston Churchill • Hitler anticipated peace negotiations with it’s “German” brother • Resolute and fierce Prime Minister Winston Churchill refused a deal with Germany • 1940 – Battle of Britain – air bombing campaign by Hitler, bravely fought by the British with the help of radar

  20. 1941 Other Regions of the “Atlantic (European) Theater”

  21. North Africa and the Balkans • Italy attacked and later defeated Greece with the help of Germany • The takeover of the Balkan state violated the pact with Russia who was promised the Balkan state an earlier non-aggression pact • Germany moved into Russia, relieving pressure on the British

  22. 1941 Pacific Theater

  23. 1941 - Pacific Theater • Japan invaded Indochina and the US issued sanctions • Japan entered the Tripartite Pact with Rome and Berlin • Japan bombs Pearl Harbor after the US refuses to lift sanctions • US declares war on Japan, Germany declares war on US

  24. Japanese History: A Quick Review • By 1905: Kicked out the Europeans (again), Industrialized, defeated China and Russia for territory • Fought with allies in WWI, economy and military was thriving • By 1930, severely impacted by the Great Depression; Claimed “empire building” would help Japan economically • 1931 – Invaded Manchuria, withdrew from the League of Nations, signed the Anti-Comintern pact with Germany in 1936 • 1937 Invaded China – “Rape of Nanjing” (250,000 slaughtered)

  25. 1941-1942 • Allies fought Japan in the Pacific, and Germans and Italians in Africa • US secretly worked on Manhattan Project

  26. Finally – An Allied Assault • 1943 - US and Britain begin offensive in Italy • 1944 – British, Canadian and US forces land on the beaches of Normandy, France (D-Day), with the help of French forces liberate France • Meanwhile – 1942, Red Army defeated the Germans at Stalingrad and advance west for the next 3 years • 1945 - Hitler closed in on from the eastern and western fronts, reaching Berlin – Hitler commits suicide

  27. War in the Pacific • Battle of Midway cripples Japan • Dragged on a few more months as the allies defeated Japan from island to island at a great economic and human cost • Japanese refused to surrender, President Truman reasons that dropping an atomic bomb was the answer to ending a prolonged war

  28. The Atomic Bomb • August 6, 1945 – dropped on Hiroshima, 100,000 died immediately, Japan refused to surrender • August 9 a second bomb is dropped on Nagasaki and Japan surrenders • The impact of the bomb continues to be felt years later

  29. Atomic Bomb =

  30. Consequences • Holocaust revealed, sympathy for a Jewish state rose sharply • The peace settlement made the US and the Soviet Union superpowers • Europe torn to shreds, US institutes the Marshall Plan • Decline of Colonialism • Changes for Women • Creation of International Organizations • United Nations • World Bank • International Monetary Fund • General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs • And THE COLD WAR

  31. The Marshall Plan • US will give economic aid to countries in order to prevent the spread of communism • Used WITH the Truman Doctrine • Aid to Turkey and Greece (monetary AND military) to prevent Soviet control • Considered the start of the Cold War

  32. Windows to the HolocaustGraphic pictures to follow