The Crusades • After Muslims(Seljuk Turks) were threatening the Byzantine Empire (Christians), Pope Urban II calls for Christians from Western Europe to protect the Byzantine Empire and to capture the Holy Land from its Muslim inhabitants Asia Minor
Pope Urban II calls the first Crusade. 1095-1291 http://www.history.com/media.do?id=tdih_nov27_broadband&action=clip GOD WILLS IT!!
" Jerusalem is now held captive by the enemies of Christ, those who do not know God, the heathen (non Christians). Jerusalem wants to be free and begs you to come help! Who will take up this work, who will right these wrongs who will recover this territory, if you won't ?"
Reasons for the Crusades • Holy Land was holy to Christians, Jews and Muslims (especially Jerusalem) • Place where Jesus was born and died • Looking for adventure and riches • Few opportunities in feudal Europe • Hatred of Muslims
Indulgence from sins Exempt from taxes Debts cancelled The Pope wanted To get the Greek Orthodox Church back And have the Christians fight together, not each other
Cross on chest About 4000 knights took up the Cross. The word Crusade comes from the Latin CRUX, meaning Cross.
Even peasants wanted to fight. Peter the Hermit led the peasants, but most died before they reached the Holy land.
Historians believe that 30,000 crusaders left Western Europe to fight in the first crusade. About 4,000 of those were knights, who were happy to try out their fighting skills. The rest of the crusaders were foot soldiers, archers (soldiers with bows and arrows), and cooks. Women and priests also traveled with the men in the army.
The European Jews were the first to die by the Christians in the Crusades!!
There were eight major Crusades. Only the first one was really successful. Land and water routes to the Holy Land.
The Burning of Jerusalem The Crusaders were terribly cruel to the Muslims
Two new order of Knights were established during the crusades: The Knights of the Temple, the Templars And The Knights of St. John, The Hospitallers They were FIGHTING MONKS
King Louis VII of France and King Conrad III of Germany were badly defeated!
Saladin, leader of the Muslims began retaking land won in the first Crusade.
Crusade of the Three Kings Richard the Lionhearted of England Philip Augustus of France Frederick Barbarossa of the Holy Roman Empire Was called to re-take the Holy land captured by Saladin.
Richard never made it inside the walls of Jerusalem. Instead, he and Saladin made a Three year Truce
Fourth Crusade Pope Innocent III
The Crusaders didn’t even make it to the Holy land. They looted and raided Constantinople instead!! Are you crazy?? We Are not your enemies!!
How shall I begin to tell of the deeds done by these wicked men? They trampled the images underfoot instead of adoring them. They threw the relics of the martyrs into filth…. They broke into bits the sacred altar of Santa Sophia, and distributed it among the soldiers. When the sacred vessels and the silver and gold ornaments were to be carried off, they brought up mules and saddle horses inside the church itself."
Innocent excommunicated all of the participants It was one of the major reasons for the schism between the Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches..
The spirit of the crusades had been lost. Very few crusaders ever made it to the Holy Land. The "enthusiasm " seen in the first crusades had been replaced by a hunger for wealth.
The Children’s Crusade – Stephen,12 year old French shepherd, had a vision that God wanted children to go on a new crusade to free Jerusalem from Muslims. He gathered 30,000 French children and marched 300 miles to Marseilles, France . The group was shipped out in 7 ships loaded with 5,000 children, monks, and nuns. 2 ships were wrecked , 5 ships made it to North Africa where all were sold into slavery. Nicholas also a 12 year old shepherd and another child leader from Germany led 20,000 children from Germany over the Alps to Italy. Nicholas and the other leader’s armies of children sailed from Italian ports and were never heard from again. 50,000 children went, at least 10,000 died from disease, abuse, exposure, shipwreck, or attack. 23,000 never returned home.
The Fifth Crusade - 1219 Strategy- to wipe out the Muslim power at its power base in Egypt It also was a failure
The Sixth Crusade – 1228 – LED BY AN ATHEIST, FREDERICK II OF THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE No Fighting. Negotiations led to a 15 year truce!
The Seventh Crusade – 1248 – led by King Louis IX, King of France The King was captured and later his vassals had to pay ransom FAILURE!!!!!
The Eighth Crusade Also led by King Louis IX of France 1270 The King died of a fever. No land was won. Another failure
By 1291, the last piece of Christian land in the Holy Land was lost to the Muslims. The crusades were over. Would call them a Failure? success Or a
How about successful failure?????
Long Term Effect #1: Long Term Effect #1: • Interaction between Western Europe and Muslims in Middle East- Cultural Diffusion
Long Term effect #2: Long Term effect #2: • Increased trade between Europe and Middle East
Long Term Effect #3: • Italians act as middlemen in the trade between W. Europe and Middle East- they become wealthy- leads to renaissance
Long Term Effect #4: • Legacy (long term effect) of distrust and hatred between Christians, Jews and Muslims
Long Term Effect #5: • Growth of towns and cities along crusader routes; weakening of feudal system