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Memory - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Memory. The encoding, storage and retrieval of information. . Parts of Memory. Encoding Storage Retrieval. Stages of Memory. Sensory Short Term Long Term. Sensory Memory. Shortest in duration 2-3 seconds visual, auditory, taste, smell. Short Term Memory-STM.

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The encoding, storage and retrieval of information.

parts of memory
Parts of Memory




stages of memory
Stages of Memory


Short Term

Long Term

sensory memory
Sensory Memory

Shortest in duration

2-3 seconds

visual, auditory, taste, smell

short term memory stm
Short Term Memory-STM

also known as Working Memory

duration about 18-20 seconds

limited capacity

7 plus or minus 2 units of information

long term memory ltm
Long Term Memory-LTM

Duration-relatively permanent


sensory input and sensory memory
Sensory Input and Sensory Memory

Visual Memory- about 1 second

Auditory Memory-longer than visual

Attention-unusual, sudden, dramatic

Recognition-experienced before, relevant

stm input
STM Input

Iconic-pictures, images



*if I say the word ELEPHANT do you see the word or an image of an elephant?

r ehearsal and elaboration
Rehearsal and Elaboration

Can convert STM to LTM

Rehearsal-repeating to remember

Elaboration-adding meaning or

connecting to something else

retrival continued
Retrival continued


Breaking up a large piece of information in to smaller bits to make it easier to remember:

Phone numbers

Social Security Number

mnemonic techniques
Mnemonic Techniques

Methods by which a person can train themselves to remember large amounts of information. Most involve a form of elaboration or attaching meaning to the information.


The names of the Great Lakes HOMES

Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie, Superior

Order of color coding on electronic resistors:

Bad Beer Rots Our Young Guts But Vodka Goes Well (in) Silver Goblets.

(Black, Blue, Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Brown, Violet, Gray, White, Silver, Gold)

ltm types

Explicit or Declarative Memory

You can explain something in words easily.

“How you solve for the area of a square.”

Implicit or Procedural Memory

You remember it but it is hard to describe. Difficult to put into words. “How you do a lay-up in Basket Ball.”

encoding in ltm
Encoding in LTM

Acoustic sentences, sounds, songs.

Visual images. Cognitive maps

Semantic facts, concepts, principals

Episodic memories of events

memory retrival
Memory Retrival

Recall: Searching for information

Recognition: Knowing that you have encountered something before. Fastest form of memory retrieval


Decay: Lack of retrieval overtime, memory may fade.

Interference: Old information is replaced by new information.


Temporary of permanent inability to remember.



Substance Abuse-Alcohol, THC

Psychogenic-trauma, emotional shock

Types of Amnesia

Retro-grade- Can’t form new memories.

Anterograde-Can’t access old memories