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Erik Erikson - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Erik Erikson

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  1. Erik Erikson 1902 - 1994

  2. Biography • Born in Frankfurt, Germany, June 15, 1902 • Father believed to be Danish • Mother was Lutheran • Remarried when he was approx 3 to his pediatrician • Eric took last name of Homburger

  3. Biography • Tall, blond haired and blue eyed • Referred to as “goy” (gentile) at his father’s temple while at school was referred to as a Jew • Entertained fantasies of being son of “much better parents” who abandoned him.

  4. Biography • Entered art school against father’s wishes • A time of identity crisis for him • In 1927, invited to Vienna to work in a small school as an artist and tutor. • Met Freud and his daughter Anna • Accepted in Freud’s circle not based on degree but based on his brilliance and insightfulness • Met his wife in 1929 • Moved to U.S. in 1933

  5. Biography • Worked with children. • Later taught at Yale, University of California, Berkeley, and Harvard. • Never obtained a degree himself • Changed name to Erikson when he became an American citizen • Avid writer, many works centering on influence of culture on personality and analysis of historical figures • Died in 1994

  6. Theory • Believed development was based not just on sexual drives but on social interactions • Biology determines when the stages occur • Also that development occurred throughout the lifespan • First five stages are expansions of Freud’s

  7. Theory • Three interrelated aspects of the ego ; • Body ego • Understanding and acceptance of our body • Ego ideal • Image we have of ourselves and our personalities • Ego identity • Image of ourselves in the social roles we play

  8. Theory Foundations • Stages build on one another • Based on epigenetic principle • Each stage consists of a crisis • Conflict between a syntonic (harmonious) and dystonic (disruptive) element • Each crisis can be resolved positively or negatively • Positive strengthens ego • Negative weakens ego

  9. Theory Foundations • Resolution of stage influences how following stages are resolved • Healthy resolution involves more positive than negative but includes both • Can revisit stages throughout life based on circumstances with different results • Negative resolution needs revisiting

  10. Theory Foundations • Each stage includes personal and social ramifications: • Personal: • A virtue (a basic ego strength) is gained if resolved more positively • A core pathology (opposite of a virtue) is acquired if resolved more negatively • Social • Ritualization • Patterns of behavior that reflect the beliefs, values, customs, and behaviors accepted by a society that serve to make life meaningful • Ritualism • Inappropriate or false ritualizations that cause social pathology

  11. Trust vs. Mistrust • Virtue: Hope (Faith) • Core pathology: Withdrawal • Ritualization of the Numinous • Typical childrearing practices of mothers • Ritualism of Idolism • Excessive admiration and idealization of mother

  12. Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt • Virtue: Will (Determination) • Core Pathology: Compulsion • Ritualization of Judiciousness • Learn difference in right and wrong, what is acceptable and unacceptable • Ritualism of Legalism • Inflexible letter of the law attitude

  13. Initiative vs. Guilt • Virtue: Purpose (Courage) • Core Pathology: Inhibition • Ritualization of Authenticity • Trying on of roles to see what is possible or not, what fits and does not • Ritualism of Impersonation • Becoming the role played instead of who one is

  14. Industry vs. Inferiority • Virtue: Competence • Core Pathology: Inertia (regression) • Ritualization of Formality • Learning appropriate ways of doing tasks • Ritualism of Formalism • Over concern for technique rather than purpose

  15. Identity vs. Role Confusion • Virtue: Fidelity (Faith in one’s ideology) • Core Pathology: Role repudiation (blocks ability to synthesize image) • Difffidence: lack of self trust or confidence resulting in shyness or hesitancy to express oneself • Defiance: rebellion against authority • Ritualization of Ideology • Synthesizes all the previous identities of the previous stages • Gives direction to life • Ritualism of Totalism • Over identification with and adoption of another's ideology • Blind submission

  16. Identity Statuses • Marcia’s 4 Identity Statuses • Based on crisis (conscious decision making) and commitment (personal commitment) • Diffusion: confusion and little progress (no crisis or commitment) • Foreclosure: status determined by parents / others, not personal exploration (commitment w/o crisis) • Moratorium: Exploring alternatives but not settled on one (crisis w/o commitment) • Achievement: Deliberately chosen identity (crisis w/ commitment)

  17. Intimacy vs. Isolation • Virtue: Love (Loyalty) • Core Pathology: Exclusivity • Ritualization of Affiliation • Productive affiliation with others in work, friendship and love • Based on successful achievement of identity • Ritualism of Elitism • Connect only with a small exclusive group

  18. Generativity vs. Stagnation • Virtue: Care • Core Pathology: Rejectivity • Ritualization of Generationalism • Transmit cultural values to younger generation • Ritualism of Authoritism • Use of power for selfish purpose

  19. Integrity vs. Despair • Virtue: Wisdom (“informed and detached concern with life itself in the face of death itself”) • Core Pathology: Disdain (“a reaction to feeling (and seeing others) in an increasing state of being finished, confused, helpless”) • Ritualization of Integralism • Integration of all other ritualizations • Know culture will survive • Ritualism of Sapientism • “The unwise pretense of being wise”