Erik Erikson Psychosocial Development
Erikson Versus Freud • Erikson felt Freud placed undue emphasis on sexual instincts in regard to personality. • Eriskon said the climate of the mother-infant relationship is much more important to personality development.
Psychosocial Development • Proposed stages of personality development based on social stages of life. • Erikson’s stages focus on conflicts throughout our life spans and how we deal with and make decisions regarding those conflicts.
Each is labeled according to possible outcomes, which are opposites. Resolution of each stage is extremely important. Erikson assumed most people would end up with a blending of the outcomes of these stages. Erikson said the goal of adolescence was to attain ego identity, or a firm sense of what one stands for. The Stages of Development
Importance of Ego Identity • Connecting skills learned in elementary school with occupations in adult years • Without a firm grasp on ego identity, one is likely to submit to peer pressure and short-sighted hedonism.
Trust vs. Mistrust (birth- 1 1/2 yrs) • Infants are totally dependent on others – learns to trust others. • At this stage the caregiver provides food, warmth, and the comfort of physical closeness. Trust means the child can rely on the caregiver whereas mistrust would mean the child can not rely on the caregiver for meeting basic needs.
Adequate Resolution Basic sense of safety, security; ability to rely on forces outside oneself Inadequate Resolution Insecurity, anxiety Trust vs. Mistrust Outcomes
Autonomy vs. Self-Doubt1 1/2 – 3 yrs) • Child tries to become an individual by simple tasks such as walking, talking, using the bathroom • Autonomy means the child has been able to master a few task on his/her own and therefore feels like a worthy person.
Adequate Resolution Perception of self as agent; capable of controlling one’s own body Inadequate Resolution Feelings of inadequacy about self-control or control over events Autonomy vs. Self-DoubtOutcomes
Initiative vs. Guilt(3 – 6 yrs) • Child tries to take control of environment-choosing what the wear and what to eat
Often initiate activities Spend time imagining what they want to do, then think of ways to do those things. Children need to know their ideas, questions & concepts matter to others Children need chances to create play ideas and put them into action Parents scold instead of encourage Children’s play ideas are not praised Belittle and ridicule children Punishing children for acting on their ideas No encouragement to think or be creative Parents convey to children that their ideas are not valuable or worthwhile Initiative Guilt
Adequate Resolution Confidence in oneself as being able to initiate or create Inadequate Resolution Feeling a lack of self-worth Initiative vs. GuiltOutcomes
Competency vs. Inferiority(6 – puberty) • School activities, sports, social affiliation is extremely important during these years • We become interested in how things are made, how they work, and what they do • Parents are no longer the only influence on stages.
Adequate Resolution Adequacy in basic social and intellectual skills; acceptance by peers Inadequate Resolution Lack of self-confidence, feelings of failure both academically and socially Competency vs. InferiorityOutcomes
Identity vs. Identity Role Confusion(13 – 18 yrs) • Seeks to answer “Who am I?” “Will someone love who I am?” “What is my role in life?” • Peers & group identity are important. • Confusion results if fail to develop sense of self
Adequate Resolution Comfortable sense of self as a person, both unique and socially accepted Inadequate Resolution Sense of self as fragmented , shifted, unclear sense of self Identity vs. Identity Role ConfusionOutcomes
Intimacy vs. Isolation(18 - 30 yrs) • Formation of permanent relationships • Sharing on an intimate level • Weeding out of social affiliations • Loneliness results without intimacy
Adequate Resolution Capacity for closeness and commitment to others Inadequate Resolution Feelings of aloneness, loneliness, separation; denial of intimacy needs Intimacy vs. IsolationOutcomes
Generativity vs. Stagnation(30 – 65 yrs) • Person must give (generate) something important to the world • If does not generate, then he/she is psychologically at a stand-still (stagnation)
Adequate Resolution Focus on concern beyond oneself, to family, society, future generations Inadequate Resolution Self-indulgent concerns; lack of future orientation Generativity vs. StagnationOutcomes
Ego Integrity vs. Ego Despair( from 65 yrs on) • Accept the end is near. • Find that life was worthwhile – Ego Integrity. • When one looks back and feels no sense of accomplishment – Ego Despair
Adequate Resolution Sense of wholeness; basic satisfaction with life Inadequate Resolution Feelings of futility, disappointment Ego Integrity vs. Ego DespairOutcomes