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ERIK H. ERIKSON. Post Freudian Theory. Diah Fridari 3 May 2013. BIOGRAPHY. Born on June 15, 1902 in Southern Germany No formal education, working as an artist An invitation from Peter Blos to teach children in a new school in Vienna Met Anna Freud as his psychoanalyst

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  1. ERIK H. ERIKSON Post Freudian Theory Diah Fridari 3 May 2013

  2. BIOGRAPHY • Born on June 15, 1902 in Southern Germany • No formal education, working as an artist • An invitation from Peter Blos to teach children in a new school in Vienna • Met Anna Freud as his psychoanalyst • Married to Joan Serson and had 4 children • 1933 moved to USA, worked as researcher in various universities

  3. BIOGRAPHY • 1950 Published his book: Childhood and Society • 1949 Erikson left California and returned to Massachusetts worked as therapist at Austen Riggs, a treatment center for psychoanalytic training and research • 1960 Erikson returned to Harvard and held the position of professor of human development • He died May 12, 1994

  4. THE EGO in POST-FREUDIAN THEORY • ID EGO SUPEREGO (Freud’s theory) Erikson’s Theory: • EGO is a Positive Force that creates a self identity, a sense of ‘I’ • During childhood the ego is weak, pliable, and fragile and in adolescence it should begin to take form and gain strength • EGO is a person’s ability to unify experiences and actions in an adaptive manner


  6. EPIGENETIC PRINCIPLE • EPIGENETIC development implies a step by step growth of fetal organs. • EGO will follows the path of epigenetic development with each stage developing at its proper time

  7. BASIC POINTS to understand STAGES of PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT • Growth takes place according to the epigenetic principle • In every stage of life there is an interaction of opposites ---- conflict between syntonic (harmonious) vs a dystonic (disruptive) element • At each stage, the conflict between the dystonic and syntonic elements produces an ego quality or ego strength

  8. BASIC POINTS to understand STAGES of PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT • Too little basic strength at any one stage results in a core pathology for that stage • Erikson never lost sight of the biological aspect of human development • Events in earlier stages do not cause later personality development. Ego identity is shaped by a multiplicity of conflicts and events --- past, present and anticipated • From adolescence forward, personality development is characterized by an identity crisis

  9. CRITICAL PERIODS • Maturational timetable • Each stage is a critical period • A person has only a limited time to develop each stage specific capability • There are no second chances in development • Developments within each psychosocial stage are critical for the final development of a fully integrated

  10. STAGES OF PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT • The Oral-Sensory Stage (0 – 18 month) • The Anal-Musculature Stage (18 month – 3 years) • The Genital-Locomotor Stage (3 – 5 years) • Latency (6 – 11 years) • Puberty and Adolescence (12 – 21 years) • Young Adulthood (21 – 35 years) • Adulthood (35 – 55 years) • Maturity (55 < )

  11. The oral-Sensory Stage (0 – 18 month) • Trust vs. Mistrust • Pleasant sensory experience sense of basic trust • Unpleasant sense of mistrust • The emotional crisis Trust vs Mistrust • Complete trust or complete mistrust?

  12. The Anal-Musculature Stage (18 month – 3 years) • Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt • Infant must learn WHEN TO HOLD ON and WHEN TO LET GO of all his bodily muscles • Must develop the capability of being able to control his own overall bodily movements • The ability to control himself a sense of autonomy • Inability to control himself shame and doubt

  13. The Genital-Locomotor Stage (3 – 5 years) • Initiative vs Guilt • If the child is to successfully resolve the oedipal conflict he must begin to INDEPENDENTLY move away from the parental figures he must be able by himself to move freely in interaction with his environment sense of initiative • Reverse side sense of guilt

  14. LATENCY (6 – 11 years) • Industry vs Inferiority • Enter the school • Learns any kind of skills • Learns what to do and how to do sense of industry • If he feels that he fail to learn it sense of inferiority

  15. PUBERTY AND ADOLESCENE (12 – 21 years) • Identity vs Role Confusion (Identity diffusion) • Feeling about WHO HE IS and WHAT HE CAN DO • Who am I Self Definition • Identity crisis • Find his role in society sense of identity

  16. YOUNG ADULTHOOD (21 – 35 years) • Intimacy vs Isolation • Form a relationship with another person • Must be able to give of himself totally (feelings, ideas, goals, attitude and values) • Give and Take

  17. ADULTHOOD (35 – 55 years) • Generativity vs Stagnation • Playing the role of a productive and contributing member of society sense of generativity • Reverse side sense of stagnation

  18. MATURITY (55 < ) • Ego Integrity vs. Despair • If he has successfully progressed through his previous stages of development sense of ego integrity feel a full and complete life • If he has failures through his previous stages sense of despair

  19. ERIKSON’S METHOD OF INVESTIGATION • PERSONALITY is a product of history, culture, and biology • He employed anthropological, historical, sociological and clinical methods to learn about children, adolescents, mature adults and and elderly people

  20. Learning Task • Summary the Erikson’s Methods of investigation: Anthropological Study and Psychohistory • Discuss the ego implication in social life • Why does each stage in Psychosocial Development is critical period? • What kind of psychosocial needs that should be fulfilled in each stage? • Differentiate the mature personality and immature personality

  21. Learning Task • Brown family is a kind of family which is devoted to God. One day, the family was shocked because their son, Sam (19 years old) is being caught by the police in a drug party. Please discuss what makes Sam involved in drug.

  22. Thank you…

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