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Erik Erikson

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Erik Erikson. Coolest sounding name in psychology?. Ego Psychology. Stresses the importance of the ego in development Freud’s view of the ego vs. Erikson’s view Emphasizes the integration of biological and social forces in the development of the ego. Ego Development.

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erik erikson
Erik Erikson
  • Coolest sounding name in psychology?
ego psychology
Ego Psychology
  • Stresses the importance of the ego in development
  • Freud’s view of the ego vs. Erikson’s view
  • Emphasizes the integration of biological and social forces in the development of the ego
ego development
Ego Development
  • Occurs in a series of predetermined stages
    • Eight stages
  • Each stage has a crisis
    • A crucial period in which a decisive turn is unavoidable
  • Stages are dependent on each other
    • A positive or negative turn at an earlier stage affects later stages
oral sensory stage
Oral-Sensory Stage
  • Birth – 1 year
  • Basic trust vs. mistrust
  • Similar to Freud’s oral stage
  • If mother acts in a loving or considerate manner, the infant will develop basic trust
    • Ego understands people are dependable
  • If mother is unreliable or rejecting the infant will develop mistrust
muscular anal stage
Muscular-Anal Stage
  • 2 – 3 years
  • Autonomy vs. shame and doubt
  • Similar to Freud’s anal stage
  • Child’s muscles mature, starts to learn how to control them
  • Parents attempt to teach child to obey them – conflict of will and power
muscular anal stage1
Muscular-Anal Stage
  • If parents guide their children's behavior gradually and firmly
    • Autonomy and self-control is engendered
  • If too permissive or too harsh
    • Child senses defeat and has shame and doubt concerning their abilities to make effective judgments
locomotor genital stage
Locomotor-Genital Stage
  • 4 – 5 years
  • Initiative vs. doubt
  • Similar to Freud’s phallic stage
  • At this point child senses they are an individual
  • Must find out what kind of people they may become
locomotor genital stage1
Locomotor-Genital Stage
  • Start to see fantasy play about being an adult
    • Occupation
    • Various roles
    • Marriage (to the opposite sex parent)
  • If family understands and guides such play in socially acceptable acitivityue
    • Initiative is sparked (play more)
  • If children are punished for such fantasy play
    • Guilt occurs
latency stage
Latency Stage
  • 6 – 12 years
  • Industry vs. inferiority
  • Similar to Freud’s latency stage
  • Period where children start to learn new skills
  • If children succeed they will develop a sense of industry
  • If children fail they will develop feelings of inferiority
  • 13 – 19 years
  • Identity vs. role confusion
  • From the previous stages a person has a sense they are somebody
    • Part of a family
    • Sense of independence
    • Ability to take initiative
    • Able to complete tasks
  • But “who” are they?
  • Identity
    • The things we are, the things we want to become, and the things we are suppose to become
  • Identity Crisis
  • Role confusion
    • Who and what one should become
    • Embrace simple ideologies of other (heroes)
  • Identity
  • Role confusion
young adulthood
Young Adulthood
  • 20 – 24 years
  • Intimacy vs. isolation
young adulthood1
Young Adulthood
  • Such relations are only possible after an identity has been established
  • Share identity
  • Must be willing to sacrifice
  • Must be willing to regulate the cycles of
    • Work
    • Procreation
    • Recreation
young adulthood2
Young Adulthood
  • Success means you have the capacity for intimacy
  • Failure means you experience a sense of isolation
    • Will not take a chance with your identity
    • Love is only superficial
  • Success means you have the capacity for intimacy
  • Failure means you experience a sense of isolation
    • Will not take a chance with your identity
    • Love is only superficial
middle adulthood
Middle Adulthood
  • 25 – 64 years
  • Generativity vs. stagnation
  • Are you going to be productive and contribute to the welfare of the next generation?
middle adulthood1
Middle Adulthood
  • Generativity
    • Concerned not only with self development but also helping the next generation
    • Does not have to involve own children
  • Stagnation
    • Lack of productivity, boredom, and interpersonal impoverishment
late adulthood
Late Adulthood
  • 65 years – death
  • Ego integrity vs. despair
  • Death is near. . . .How was your life?
late adulthood1
Late Adulthood
  • Ego integrity
  • Adapted to triumphs and disappointments
  • Generated ideas (or others)
  • Conclude your life had meaning and unity
  • Accept your death as part of life
late adulthood2
Late Adulthood
  • Despair
  • Unable to accept inevitable failures of life
  • Had a selfish or uncaring life
  • Despair because you know you are going to die – no way to “redo” your life
“It is not things in themselves that trouble us, but our opinions of things.”
  • “Change your thoughts and you change your world."
  • “I do not react to some absolute reality, but to my perception of this reality. It is this perception which for me is reality.”
awareness is everything
Awareness is everything!
  • Conscious experience is all that matters
  • The past is only important if it affects your thoughts and feelings now
  • Even if “reality” exists, it doesn’t matter
  • Note how different from other approaches
    • Trait
    • Genetic
    • Psychodynamic
humanistic psychology
Humanistic Psychology
  • The study of the mind is different than any other science
  • The mind is aware!
    • The mind is attempting to understand the mind
  • Existentialism
    • The cs mind has a sense of “existence”
  • Phenomenological
    • The “phenomenon” of experience
  • Humanistic
    • This phenomenon is uniquely human
phenomenological humanistic and existentialism
Phenomenological, Humanistic, and Existentialism
  • Free will
  • Awareness
  • Meaning
  • Responsibilities of free will
  • The object of study are human beings
free will
Free Will
  • Previous approaches
  • CS experience is personality
  • The UCS mind does not matter
  • The past does not matter
  • Only times these do matter is if you let them
    • Gordon Liddy example
  • What does it feel like to exist?
  • Umwelt
    • Senses you feel as a biological organism
  • Mitwelt
    • Feelings related to social experiences
  • Eigenwelt
    • Feelings when you think of your own existence
What would you have been like if you. . .
  • Were born to an extremely wealth family?
  • Were born to an extremely poor family?
  • Were born in North Dakota in 1952?
  • Were born in England in 1500?
thrown ness
  • The circumstances into which you happened to be born
  • What time period do you think it is most difficult to find a sense of meaning?
  • Modern times
  • Why are you here?
  • What should you be doing?
  • Angst
    • Existential anxiety
what to do
What to do?
  • “Lucky mud”
  • Free choice – must not “blow” your chance to find “meaning”
    • Not a “true” meaning, but a personal “meaning”
authentic existence
Authentic Existence
  • Come to terms with your existence
    • Life is shot
    • You will die
    • You are in control of your choices – find meaning
  • Still not a “happy” existence
    • Life is shot
    • Your will die
    • Meaning is only an illusion
bad faith
Bad Faith
  • Avoid Angst
  • Stop worrying about the problems of existence
bad faith1
Bad Faith
  • Problems
  • 1) Living a lie
    • Might as well just be the “unlucky mud”
  • 2) Still will not be happy
  • 3) Still making a choice
    • Chosen not to chose is a choice
    • “Man is condemned to freedom”