Erik Erikson • Like Freud, personality develops in stages • Focuses on social experiences across the life span • Development of ego identity • Conscious sense of self we develop through social interaction
Erikson • Each stage is concerned with being competent in an area • Handle well=mastery • Handle poorly = inadequacy • Each stage has a conflict that serves as a turning point in development
Erikson • Develop a psychological quality or failing to develop that quality • Potential for growth and failure is high
ERIK ERIKSON • Born in Germany in 1902. • In grammar school, he was teased for being Jewish. • He did not feel comfortable (at a very early age) as a German or a Jew. • This feeling was a basis for his later theory of “identity crisis” • In 1920’s, he met Sigmund Freud’s daughter (Anna) and studied under her in Vienna. • Moved to U.S. in 1933 and taught at Yale, Harvard, and UCal at Berkeley.
Eight Stages of Psychosocial Development • Trust vs. Mistrust • Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt • Initiative vs. Guilt • Industry vs. Inferiority • Identity vs. Confusion • Intimacy vs. Isolation • Generativity vs. Stagnation • Integrity vs. Despair
Trust vs. Mistrust (birth – 1 year) • Fundamental stage • Infants are dependent: need to develop trust • Based on dependability & quality of caregivers • If develops trust: safe and secure • Failure: fear and a belief that the world is inconsistent and unpredictable
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (early childhood) • Focused on children developing a greater sense of personal control • Toilet training was a vital part of process • Learning to control one’s body function leads to sense of control and independence • Control over food, toys, and clothes • Success: secure and confident • Failure: inadequacy and self-doubt • Build self-esteem and autonomy as we gain control • Develop will
Initiative vs. Guilt (preschool years) • Children begin to assert their power and control • Play and social interaction • Successful: capable and able to lead others • Failure: sense of guilt, self-doubt, and lack of initiative
Industry vs. Inferiority: (5 to 11) • Through social interactions: sense of pride in accomplishments and abilities • Encouraged and commended by parents and teachers: develop a feeling of competence and belief in their skills • Little or no encouragement from parents, teachers, and peers: doubt ability to succeed • Industry: accomplishing new skills and knowledge
Identity vs. Confusion: 12 to 18 • Exploring independence, developing sense of self • Receive proper encouragement and reinforcement through personal exploration: strong sense of self and a feeling of independence and control • Unsure of beliefs and desires= insecure and confused about themselves and future • Up to this point: development is based upon what is done to us • Here on out is what we do! • Social interaction, moral issues
ADOLESCENCE: 12 to 18 con’t • Our task is to discover who we are as individuals separate from our family of origin and as members of a wider society. • And if we are unsuccessful in navigating this stage, we will experience role confusion and upheaval.
ADOLESCENCE (18-35) • A significant task for us is to establish a philosophy of life and in this process we tend to think in terms of ideals, which are conflict free, rather than reality, which is not. • The problem is that we don't have much experience and find it easy to substitute ideals for experience. However, we can also develop strong devotion to friends and causes. • It is no surprise that our most significant relationships are with peer groups.
Intimacy vs. Isolation: early adulthood • Seek companions and love • Attempt to find mutually satisfying relationships through marriage and friends • Start a family • Successful: intimacy on a deep level • Failure: isolation and distance from others , if no satisfying relationships our world shrinks
Generativity vs. Stagnation: 35 to 55/65 • Continue to build our lives • Focus on career and family • Success: feel like they are contributing to the world by being active in their home and community • Fail: unproductive and uninvolved, self-absorbed and stagnate • Creative and meaningful work • Children leave home, mid-life crisis, new meanings and purposes
Integrity vs. Despair: 55 to 65 to Death • Much of life is preparing for the middle adulthood stage and the last stage is recovering from it • Reflecting back on life • Perhaps that is because as older adults we can often look back on our lives with happiness and are content, feeling fulfilled with a deep sense that life has meaning and we've made a contribution to life, a feeling Erikson calls integrity. • On the other hand, some adults may reach this stage and despair at their experiences and perceived failures.