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The Minor Prophets

The Minor Prophets. Of the Old Testament. St. Mina Coptic Orthodox Church Hamilton, Ontario, Canada Pre-Servant 2012. The Minor Prophets. Hosea – “Salvation” “God saves” (750-725 BC) Joel – “Jehovah is God” (830 BC) Amos – “Burden-bearer” (755 BC)

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The Minor Prophets

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  1. The Minor Prophets Of the Old Testament St. Mina Coptic Orthodox Church Hamilton, Ontario, Canada Pre-Servant 2012

  2. The Minor Prophets • Hosea – “Salvation” “God saves” (750-725 BC) • Joel – “Jehovah is God” (830 BC) • Amos – “Burden-bearer” (755 BC) • Obadiah – “Servant /worshiper of Jehovah” (845 BC) • Jonah – “Dove” (780 BC) • Micah – “Who is like the Lord?” (740-700 BC)

  3. The Minor Prophets • Nahum – “Consolation” or “Comforter” (630-612 BC) • Habakkuk – “Embrace” (612-606 BC) • Zephaniah – “Jehovah Hides” (625 BC) • Haggai – “Festive or Festival” (520 BC) • Zachariah – “Jehovah Remembers” (520-518 BC) • Malachi – “My Messenger/Angel” (445-432 BC)

  4. The Minor Prophets • Put together as one book by the men of the great synagogue in Ezra’s time • called minor prophets, not because their writings are of any less authority or usefulness than those of the greater prophets, less in God’s account , but only because they are shorter, and less in bulk than the other • Nine of these prophets prophesied before the captivity • The last three after the return of the Jews to their own land

  5. 1. The prophet Hosea • Hosea means God Saves • First of all the writing prophets, being raised up before the time of Isaiah • Message deepened by the painful experience he underwent in his married life, Gomer the adulteress who symbolized faithless Israel. As he couldn’t give up his wife, so Yahweh could not renounce Israel who betrothed to him

  6. The prophet Hosea • Prophecy of baby Jesus, St. Mary and Joseph leaving Egypt and returning to Galilee • Prophecy of the destruction of the kingdom of the ten tribes when it was at a great distance, and lived himself to see and lament it, and to improve it when it was over, for warning to its sister kingdom • The scope: to discover sin, denounce the judgments of God against a people that would not be reformed

  7. The prophet Hosea • Style above any of the prophets, in some places it seems to be like the book of Proverbs, without connection • Speaks of Israel as earth not heaven to describe the low state that the people reached spiritually and morally • Teach the relation between God and His people, even if Israel betrayed Him as her pious spouse, He still ask for her to be chastised • Last chapter: the fruits of repentance

  8. 2. The Prophet Joel • Joel means “Jehovah is God” • Joel from the tribe of Reuben, born in north west of Jerusalem. (Others see him from the tribe of Judah) • Appeared about the same time as Amos. Amos was in Israel and Joel in Judah. God sent a variety of prophets, that they might strengthen the hands one of another and that “Out of the mouth of two or three witnesses every word might be established” • The Spirit poured out on humanity the day of Pentecost

  9. The Prophet Joel • Chapter 1,and part of 2 : the desolations made by hosts of harmful insects • The people are called to repentance • Promises are made of the return of mercy upon their repentance, and promises of the pouring out of the Spirit in the latter days • Glorious things are spoken of the gospel – Jerusalem and the prosperity of it

  10. 3. The prophet Amos • Amos means a burden, or burden bearer • Known as having a slow tongue, spoke with stammering lips • Appeared a little before Isaiah. Mistaken to be the father of Isaiah, for Isaiah was a member of the aristocracy, Amos was a country-farmer • Was of Judah, but prophesied against Israel • Was met with opposition in his work, but was a man of fearless resolution , faithful in reproving sin, denouncing the judgments of God for it, pressing tirelessly to repentance and reformation

  11. The prophecy of Amos • Begins with threatening against the neighboring nations that were enemies to Israel • Calls Israel to account and judges them for their idolatry, unworthy walking under the favors God had bestowed upon them • Calls them to repentance, rejecting their hypocritical sacrifices unless they did repent • Foretells the desolations that were coming upon them • Concludes with a promise of the setting up of the Messiah’s Kingdom and the happiness of God’s spiritual Israel • A Message to wealthy and religious leaders about their greed, selfishness, immorality, bribery and injustice

  12. The prophecy of Amos • This book shows Amos’s • humbleness: didn’t deny his profession as a shepherd • courage: didn’t run away from his mission though the threatens of the King to him • wisdom: didn’t only speak to the rich people but called everyone to repentance • faithfulness in offering God’s word without compromising • work as shepherd gave him the life of contemplation

  13. 4. The prophecy of Obadiah • Obadiah means worshiper of Jehovah • Shortest of all the books of the Old Testament • Was probably contemporary with Hosea and Amos • Others think he lived about the time of the destruction of Jerusalem, when the children of Edom triumphed in that destruction • All the writings concerning Edom, a nation nearly allied to Israel, and yet an enemy to the seed of Jacob, inheriting the enmity of their father Esau to Jacob

  14. The prophecy of Obadiah Speaks about: 1- Coming Day of the Lord; threatening against Edom, that their pride should be humbled 2- their wealth should be plundered, and their wisdom should be taken 4- their spiteful behavior towards God’s Israel should be avenged 5- Promises to Israel, that they shall be restored and reformed, victorious over the Edomites, become masters of their land and the kingdom of the Messiah shall be set up by the bringing in of the great salvation.

  15. 5. The book of Jonah (5th century B.C.) • Jonah means pigeon • Thought to be the dead son of the widow whom Elijah brought to life • Prophet of the land of Israel (the northern Kingdom) • Prophecy against Nineveh, recorded chiefly for the gospel with its message of redemption for all, both Jews and Gentile • Prophesying of Christ, of whom Jonah was a type • Contains very remarkable instances of human infirmity in Jonah, and of God’s mercy both in pardoning repenting sinners, and in bearing with complaining saints

  16. 6. The Prophecy of Micah • Micah, short for Michael, means “like God” • Scope of the book: 1- to convince sinners of their sins by setting them in order before them, charging both Israel and Judah with idolatry, materialism, oppression, contempt of the word of God, and their rulers especially with the abuse of their power 2- to comfort God’s people with promises of mercy and deliverance, especially with the coming of the Messiah and the grace of the gospel through him

  17. 6. The Prophecy of Micah • 2 great events in this book: • The prediction of the destruction of Jerusalem (3:12) • The prediction of the birth of Christ (5:2)

  18. 7. The Prophecy of Nahum • Nahum means a comforter • Foretelling the destruction of Nineveh • A comforter to the ten tribes of Israel • Uncertain of time he lived and prophesied, most probable in the time of Hezekiah, his prophecy was against Nineveh, after the captivity of Israel by the king of Assyria • Shows Yahweh is the avenger and He is also merciful, a citadel in the day of distress • Nineveh’s doom was a judgment on the wicked city • Before many years passed, Jerusalem too was to learn the meaning of such a judgment

  19. 8. The Prophecy of Habakkuk • Habakkuk , unusual Hebrew name, means “embrace” • Lived and prophesies in the reign of king Manasseh, when the destruction was on by the Chaldeans • A lively presentation of the communion between a gracious God and a gracious soul • The first two chapters: a dialogue between the prophet and the Lord; calls God to account for His government of the world • God has prepared a chastising rod, Babylon, which will be the avenging instrument in His hand • The third chapter filled with memories of Israel’s past and expressing authentic Israelite faith • Ends with a joyous profession of confidence in the Savior

  20. 9. The Prophecy of Zephaniah • Zephaniah means “Yahweh Hides” • Was hidden from Manasseh’s slaughter • Places last of all the Minor Prophets before the captivity, not long before Jeremiah • Foretells the general destruction of Judah and Jerusalem by the Chaldeans • Calls them to repentance, gives encouraging promises of their joyful return out of captivity in due time • Jeremiah influenced by it in both language and ideas

  21. 10. The book of Haggai • Postexilic prophecy begins with Haggai, about eighteen years after the return, when the building of the temple was both delayed by its enemies and neglected by its friends • Jews who returned from the Exile in Babylonia encountered terrible obstacles in their efforts to re-establish Jewish life in Judah • Samaritans succeeded in blocking the rebuilding of the temple, but after Darius acceded to the throne, permission was given to resume the work • Received the word of the Lord in the second year of Darius (520 B.C.)

  22. 11. The Prophecy of Zechariah • Zechariah means “Yahweh remembers” • Colleague with Haggai, worked together in forwarding the building of the second temple • Began to prophesy some time after Haggai, but continued longer, wrote more, prophesied more, particularly concerning Christ, than Haggai had done • Recorded eight symbolic visions, to promote the work of rebuilding the temple and to encourage the returned exiles, especially their leaders, Joshua and Zerubbabel • Chapter 7 & 8 contain instructions concerning fasting, and encouragement to hope for God’s favor

  23. The Prophecy of Zechariah • Chapter 9 & 12 have two sermons that reprove for sin, threaten God’s judgments against the hardhearted, encourage those that feared God with assurances of the mercy God had for His church • Prophecies about the Christ’s: • Entering Jerusalem (9:9) • Mourning for Him (12:10) • His wounds (13:6) • The Shepherd in strife (13:7)

  24. 12. The Prophecy of Malachi • Malachi means “My Messenger” or “My angel” • Gives a picture of life in the Jewish community returned from Babylon, between the period of Haggai and the reform measures of Ezra and Nehemiah • Criticized the abuse and religious indifference in the community , prepared the way for these necessary reforms • Haggai and Zechariah sent to reprove the people for delaying to build the temple • Malachi sent to reprove people for the neglect of the temple when it was built, and their deviation of the temple service

  25. The Prophecy of Malachi • Priests dishonored God by their blemished sacrifices, and the people marriage with pagans • Many people were asking “where is the God of justice? ” • Prophet replies that the day of the Lord is coming; first the forerunner must come (chapter 3:1) John the Baptist; when the ground is prepared God will appear • Speaks clearly of the Messiah, concludes with a direction to the people of God to keep/remember the Law of Moses, while expecting the gospel of Christ


  27. THANK YOU 

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