The Minor Prophets Lesson 1An Introduction To The Minor Prophets
Introduction • Why bother teaching from the Old Testament especially unfamiliar minor prophets? • Not under the Law of Moses today • But, Old Testament including minor prophets great value to us today to encourage our faith and hope in the Lord
Introduction • Also, we can be encouraged to faithfully stand for God’s Word as the prophets did although persecuted, some even to death • Increase appreciation for God’s plan of redemption in Christ
Old Testament Valuable To Our Faith Today • Rom 15:4 For whatever was written in earlier times was written for our instruction, so that through perseverance and the encouragement of the Scriptures we might have hope. • 1Co 10:11 Now these things happened to them as an example, and they were written for our instruction, upon whom the ends of the ages have come.
Old Testament Valuable To Our Faith Today • 2Ch 36:15 The LORD, the God of their fathers, sent word to them again and again by His messengers, because He had compassion on His people and on His dwelling place; • 2Ch 36:16 but they continually mocked the messengers of God, despised His words and scoffed at His prophets, until the wrath of the LORD arose against His people, until there was no remedy.
Old Testament Valuable To Our Faith Today • 2Ch 36:17 Therefore He brought up against them the king of the Chaldeans who slew their young men with the sword in the house of their sanctuary, and had no compassion on young man or virgin, old man or infirm; He gave them all into his hand.
Old Testament Valuable To Our Faith Today • Heb 11:32 And what more shall I say? For time will fail me if I tell of Gideon, Barak, Samson, Jephthah, of David and Samuel and the prophets, • Heb 11:33 who by faith conquered kingdoms, performed acts of righteousness, obtained promises, shut the mouths of lions,
Old Testament Valuable To Our Faith Today • Heb 11:34 quenched the power of fire, escaped the edge of the sword, from weakness were made strong, became mighty in war, put foreign armies to flight. • Heb 11:35 Women received back their dead by resurrection; and others were tortured, not accepting their release, so that they might obtain a better resurrection;
Old Testament Valuable To Our Faith Today • Heb 11:36 and others experienced mockings and scourgings, yes, also chains and imprisonment. • Heb 11:37 They were stoned, they were sawn in two, they were tempted, they were put to death with the sword; they went about in sheepskins, in goatskins, being destitute, afflicted, ill-treated
Old Testament Valuable To Our Faith Today • Heb 11:38 (men of whom the world was not worthy), wandering in deserts and mountains and caves and holes in the ground. • Heb 11:39 And all these, having gained approval through their faith, did not receive what was promised, • Heb 11:40 because God had provided something better for us, so that apart from us they would not be made perfect.
Old Testament Valuable To Our Faith Today • 1Pe 1:10 As to this salvation, the prophets who prophesied of the grace that would come to you made careful searches and inquiries, • 1Pe 1:11 seeking to know what person or time the Spirit of Christ within them was indicating as He predicted the sufferings of Christ and the glories to follow.
Old Testament Valuable To Our Faith Today • 1Pe 1:12 It was revealed to them that they were not serving themselves, but you, in these things which now have been announced to you through those who preached the gospel to you by the Holy Spirit sent from heaven--things into which angels long to look.
Introduction • Prophets are “minor” because of length of their writings compared to the “major” prophets (Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel and Daniel) • Like the prophets, we need to stand for God’s Word, no matter what may come to our nation, trusting His rule and mercy • Like them, we need to trust in the Lord who provides our only true hope, eternal life
An Introduction To The Minor Prophets • What is a prophet? • How can we distinguish between true and false prophets? • Who are the minor prophets? • What information can help us better understand the minor prophets? • What did the minor prophets preach?
An Introduction To The Minor Prophets • What are some of the themes found in the minor prophets? • Strategy for studying each minor prophet
What Is A Prophet? • Origin uncertain • Understood to mean bubble or boil up • Bible description – a prophet is a spokesman for God, forthtelling His Word revealing past, present and future
What Is A Prophet? • Exo 4:16 "Moreover, he shall speak for you to the people; and he will be as a mouth for you and you will be as God to him. • Exo 7:1 Then the LORD said to Moses, "See, I make you as God to Pharaoh, and your brother Aaron shall be your prophet. • Exo 7:2 "You shall speak all that I command you, and your brother Aaron shall speak to Pharaoh that he let the sons of Israel go out of his land.
What Is A Prophet? • 2Pe 1:19 So we have the prophetic word made more sure, to which you do well to pay attention as to a lamp shining in a dark place, until the day dawns and the morning star arises in your hearts. • 2Pe 1:20 But know this first of all, that no prophecy of Scripture is a matter of one's own interpretation,
What Is A Prophet? • 2Pe 1:21 for no prophecy was ever made by an act of human will, but men moved by the Holy Spirit spoke from God.
What Is A Prophet? • Jer 20:7 O LORD, You have deceived me and I was deceived; You have overcome me and prevailed. I have become a laughingstock all day long; Everyone mocks me. • Jer 20:8 For each time I speak, I cry aloud; I proclaim violence and destruction, Because for me the word of the LORD has resulted In reproach and derision all day long.
What Is A Prophet? • Jer 20:9 But if I say, "I will not remember Him Or speak anymore in His name," Then in my heart it becomes like a burning fire Shut up in my bones; And I am weary of holding it in, And I cannot endure it.
How Can We Distinguish Between True And False Prophets? • Fulfillment test – does what he predicts come to pass? • Consistency test – is his teaching in harmony with what God previously revealed?
Does What He Predicts Come To Pass? • Deu 18:21 "You may say in your heart, 'How will we know the word which the LORD has not spoken?' • Deu 18:22 "When a prophet speaks in the name of the LORD, if the thing does not come about or come true, that is the thing which the LORD has not spoken. The prophet has spoken it presumptuously; you shall not be afraid of him.
Contrast Jeremiah With Hananiah • Jer 28:1 Now in the same year, in the beginning of the reign of Zedekiah king of Judah, in the fourth year, in the fifth month, Hananiah the son of Azzur, the prophet, who was from Gibeon, spoke to me in the house of the LORD in the presence of the priests and all the people, saying, • Jer 28:2 "Thus says the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel, 'I have broken the yoke of the king of Babylon.
Contrast Jeremiah With Hananiah • Jer 28:3 'Within two years I am going to bring back to this place all the vessels of the LORD'S house, which Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon took away from this place and carried to Babylon.
Contrast Jeremiah With Hananiah • Jer 28:4 'I am also going to bring back to this place Jeconiah the son of Jehoiakim, king of Judah, and all the exiles of Judah who went to Babylon,' declares the LORD, 'for I will break the yoke of the king of Babylon.'" • Jer 28:13 "Go and speak to Hananiah, saying, 'Thus says the LORD, "You have broken the yokes of wood, but you have made instead of them yokes of iron."
Contrast Jeremiah With Hananiah • Jer 28:14 'For thus says the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel, "I have put a yoke of iron on the neck of all these nations, that they may serve Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon; and they will serve him. And I have also given him the beasts of the field."'" • Jer 28:15 Then Jeremiah the prophet said to Hananiah the prophet, "Listen now, Hananiah, the LORD has not sent you, and you have made this people trust in a lie.
Contrast Jeremiah With Hananiah • Jer 28:16 "Therefore thus says the LORD, 'Behold, I am about to remove you from the face of the earth. This year you are going to die, because you have counseled rebellion against the LORD.'" • Jer 28:17 So Hananiah the prophet died in the same year in the seventh month.
Contrast Jeremiah With Hananiah • Jer 22:24 "As I live," declares the LORD, "even though Coniah the son of Jehoiakim king of Judah were a signet ring on My right hand, yet I would pull you off; • Jer 22:25 and I will give you over into the hand of those who are seeking your life, yes, into the hand of those whom you dread, even into the hand of Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon and into the hand of the Chaldeans.
Contrast Jeremiah With Hananiah • Jer 22:26 "I will hurl you and your mother who bore you into another country where you were not born, and there you will die. • 2Ki 25:8 Now on the seventh day of the fifth month, which was the nineteenth year of King Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, Nebuzaradan the captain of the guard, a servant of the king of Babylon, came to Jerusalem.
Contrast Jeremiah With Hananiah • 2Ki 25:9 He burned the house of the LORD, the king's house, and all the houses of Jerusalem; even every great house he burned with fire. • 2Ki 25:10 So all the army of the Chaldeans who were with the captain of the guard broke down the walls around Jerusalem.
Contrast Jeremiah With Hananiah • 2Ki 25:27 Now it came about in the thirty-seventh year of the exile of Jehoiachin king of Judah, in the twelfth month, on the twenty-seventh day of the month, that Evil-merodach king of Babylon, in the year that he became king, released Jehoiachin king of Judah from prison; • 2Ki 25:28 and he spoke kindly to him and set his throne above the throne of the kings who were with him in Babylon.
Contrast Jeremiah With Hananiah • 2Ki 25:30 and for his allowance, a regular allowance was given him by the king, a portion for each day, all the days of his life.
Is His Teaching In Harmony With What God Previously Revealed? • Deu 13:1 "If a prophet or a dreamer of dreams arises among you and gives you a sign or a wonder, • Deu 13:2 and the sign or the wonder comes true, concerning which he spoke to you, saying, 'Let us go after other gods (whom you have not known) and let us serve them,'
Is His Teaching In Harmony With What God Previously Revealed? • Deu 13:3 you shall not listen to the words of that prophet or that dreamer of dreams; for the LORD your God is testing you to find out if you love the LORD your God with all your heart and with all your soul. • Deu 13:4 "You shall follow the LORD your God and fear Him; and you shall keep His commandments, listen to His voice, serve Him, and cling to Him.
Is His Teaching In Harmony With What God Previously Revealed? • Deu 13:5 "But that prophet or that dreamer of dreams shall be put to death, because he has counseled rebellion against the LORD your God who brought you from the land of Egypt and redeemed you from the house of slavery, to seduce you from the way in which the LORD your God commanded you to walk. So you shall purge the evil from among you.
Moses, Micah and Jeremiah Agree • Deu 28:47 "Because you did not serve the LORD your God with joy and a glad heart, for the abundance of all things; • Deu 28:48 therefore you shall serve your enemies whom the LORD will send against you, in hunger, in thirst, in nakedness, and in the lack of all things; and He will put an iron yoke on your neck until He has destroyed you.
Moses, Micah and Jeremiah Agree • Mic 3:11 Her leaders pronounce judgment for a bribe, Her priests instruct for a price And her prophets divine for money. Yet they lean on the LORD saying, "Is not the LORD in our midst? Calamity will not come upon us."
Moses, Micah and Jeremiah Agree • Mic 3:12 Therefore, on account of you Zion will be plowed as a field, Jerusalem will become a heap of ruins, And the mountain of the temple will become high places of a forest.
Moses, Micah and Jeremiah Agree • Jer 26:4 "And you will say to them, 'Thus says the LORD, "If you will not listen to Me, to walk in My law which I have set before you, • Jer 26:5 to listen to the words of My servants the prophets, whom I have been sending to you again and again, but you have not listened;
Moses, Micah and Jeremiah Agree • Jer 26:6 then I will make this house like Shiloh, and this city I will make a curse to all the nations of the earth."'" • Jer 26:17 Then some of the elders of the land rose up and spoke to all the assembly of the people, saying,
Moses, Micah and Jeremiah Agree • Jer 26:18 "Micah of Moresheth prophesied in the days of Hezekiah king of Judah; and he spoke to all the people of Judah, saying, 'Thus the LORD of hosts has said, "Zion will be plowed as a field, And Jerusalem will become ruins, And the mountain of the house as the high places of a forest."'
Moses, Micah and Jeremiah Agree • Jer 26:19 "Did Hezekiah king of Judah and all Judah put him to death? Did he not fear the LORD and entreat the favor of the LORD, and the LORD changed His mind about the misfortune which He had pronounced against them? But we are committing a great evil against ourselves."
Who Are The Minor Prophets? • They were 12 prophets who spoke and wrote probably between 845 BC and 432 BC • Nation divided in 931 BC with 10 tribes forming Israel, northern kingdom • Judah and Benjamin remaining in Jerusalem forming Judah, the southern kingdom
Who Are The Minor Prophets? • They prophesied to idolatrous nations, Israel (northern kingdom) and Judah (southern kingdom) • Most prophets appeared during or after two major crises • Crisis 1 - 722 BC – Israel (northern kingdom) taken captive by Assyria
Who Are The Minor Prophets? • Crisis 2 - 586 BC – Judah (southern kingdom) taken captive by Babylon with Jerusalem and Temple destroyed • From different backgrounds teaching with different styles, they all spoke forth God’s Word to the people • Not in chronological order in Old Testament • Will try to list in chronological order