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THE COLD WAR. The Iron Curtain. Eastern Europe is the first area where the communist/capitalist conflict arose The creation of satellite nations forced Truman and Churchill to act

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The iron curtain
The Iron Curtain

  • Eastern Europe is the first area where the communist/capitalist conflict arose

  • The creation of satellite nations forced Truman and Churchill to act

  • Churchill uses the phrase “iron curtain” to describe the barrier between Western Europe (non-communist) and Eastern Europe (communist)

Policy of containment
Policy of Containment

  • US policy

  • Restricts communism into its current borders

  • Issued in 1940s

Truman doctrine
Truman Doctrine

  • President Truman says the US will help any non-communist country combat communism

  • i.e. Turkey and Greece

Marshall plan
Marshall Plan

  • Economic plan to rebuild western Europe

  • Developed by US Sec. of State George Marshall

    • Will win the Nobel Peace Prize for this action

A germany divided
A Germany Divided…

  • Germany and Berlin divided between: US, Soviet Union, France, GB

  • When GB and FR entered into Marshall Plan and began to join democratic forces, Stalin got angry

  • THUS….

Berlin blockade and berlin airlift 1948
Berlin Blockade and Berlin Airlift (1948)

  • The Soviets want all of Berlin (since it is in their zone) so they blockaded the western portion

  • They did this hoping to make the Allies give up this section

  • In response, supplies, food, medicine, etc were sent in by air for over 11 months

  • In 1949 Stalin lifts the blockade

Nato vs warsaw pact
NATO vs. Warsaw Pact

  • North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) developed in 1949

  • It is designed as a military alliance to defend US, Western Europe and Canada from outside attack

  • In response, communist nations develop the Warsaw Pact

Arms race
Arms Race

  • Also in 1949 the Soviets successfully tested their own atomic bomb

  • Now it was a race between the USSR and the US to see who could develop and strengthen weapon systems


  • Becomes leader after Stalin dies in 1953

  • He wants to “destalinize” the Soviet Union (reverse some polices that Stalin started)

A peaceful coexistence
A Peaceful Coexistence

  • Khrushchev calls for this policy to avoid war with the west

  • Encourages nations to follow communism and improves society

  • A special emphasis is put on technological research

Sputnik icbm and a space race
Sputnik, ICBM and a Space Race

  • The Soviets launch Sputnik I, world’s first space satellite

  • Both USSR and US test Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles (ICBM) which are long range rockets

  • The need to be one step ahead of the other country with space technology development is known as the space race

Soured relations lead to problems in cuba
Soured Relations Lead to Problems in Cuba

  • Relations are good for a while between US and USSR until the USSR shoots down a US spy plane

  • USSR denounces US and America retaliates by cutting off trade w/ Cuba, as they are harboring Soviet nuclear missiles

  • Cuba turns to USSR for help

  • Cuba already communist due to Castro coming to power in 1959

Bay of pigs 1961
Bay of Pigs 1961

  • The US decides to get Castro out of power by taking Cuban exiles in America, having the CIA train them, put them back in Cuba, have them start a revolt and overthrow Castro

  • This was a HUGE failure and an embarrassment to JFK

Cuban missile crisis 1962
Cuban Missile Crisis 1962

  • Since the US found Soviet missiles pointed at America in Cuba they needed to act

  • The Soviets put their missiles in Cuba to offset US missiles in Turkey pointed at the USSR

  • In response, the US blockaded Cuba and Khrushchev agreed to remove missiles if the US did not invade Cuba

Results of cuban missile crisis
Results of Cuban Missile Crisis

  • This crisis is one of the most important events of Cold War…Why????

  • Each side knew better relations were key and set up a “hotline” so they could talk before missiles were launched

  • The US removes its missiles from Turkey

  • Leads to policy of détente, or relaxing of tensions between US and USSR

The cold war

  • SALT: Strategic Arms Limitation Talks

  • Nixon was the first to meet with the Soviets and they basically agreed to limit their nuclear weapons

  • This also is an example of détente or the beginning of the end of the Cold War

Soviet satellite nations
Soviet Satellite Nations

  • The USSR kept a close guard on its satellite nations

  • The people resented this, though could not do much against the powerful Soviet forces

  • Some countries include:

    • Poland

    • Czechoslovakia

    • Hungary

    • East Germany and East Berlin (city)

Iran hostage crisis

  • The US tried to keep the Shah of Iran in power as he wanted to westernize Iran and also wished to get rid of religious influence in the government

  • Another political group had the support of the people, who wished to see religion remain in government

  • This group used their power to take over Iran and wanted the Shah to be tried for treason

  • The Shah (supported by the US) would not return from exile.

Iran hostage crisis cont d

  • In 1979, a group of militants stormed the US embassy and held hostage all of the embassy workers for almost two years with the permission of the new Iranian gov’t

  • They demanded return of the Shah for trial in exchange for the hostages, but the US would not comply

  • The hostages were eventually let go (1981), but the relationship between Iran and US remains strained even today

Berlin wall
Berlin Wall

  • Many people had begun to migrate over to West Berlin in search for better jobs, economy, or to get away from communism

  • This was an embarrassment to the Soviet Union so they began to build a massive wall

  • This wall was to keep westerners out and easterners in

  • People faced dogs, electric wire, etc trying to get across

  • It was the most visible and powerful symbol representing the iron curtain

Fall of berlin wall
Fall of Berlin Wall

  • In November 1989 the government of East Berlin announced that crossing the border (wall) would be permitted

  • In the next few weeks that followed, the wall was dismantled

  • German unification (east and west united) was finally completed on October 3, 1990

Tiananmen square
Tiananmen Square

  • Series of demonstrations led by students in China in the summer of 1989

  • These students were protesting the communist government

  • The military cracked down on the protesters, leaving many dead and wounded

  • The violence the protesters met was broadcasted around the world and angered many democratic nations