Chapter 6 Lesson 2: Atomic Structure

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# Chapter 6 Lesson 2: Atomic Structure - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Chapter 6 Lesson 2: Atomic Structure. Mrs. Shaw. Bellwork Day 1. Explain the structure of an atom. For example:

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## Chapter 6 Lesson 2: Atomic Structure

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### Chapter 6 Lesson 2: Atomic Structure

Mrs. Shaw

Bellwork Day 1
• Explain the structure of an atom.
• For example:
• An atom has a central area called a ________________where the positive ______________ and neutral _____________ are located. The electrons have a _______________ charge and are located in the ________________ _____________ which is outside the nucleus.
Learning Goals for this Lesson
• Students will be able to
• Describe the structure of an atom including the charges of each subatomic particle.
• Explain where the majority of the mass of an atom is located.
• Differentiate between a neutral atom, and ion, and an isotope
• Explain how you can tell what type of atom you are observing.

Chapter 6 Lesson 2 2: The Structure of Atoms

Atoms

Atoms: Smallest unit of matter that cannot be divided and still be the same element.

Each type of element has a different number of subatomic particles (protons, neutrons, and electrons)

Inside the Nucleus
• Nucleus: center of the atom where majority of mass is.
• Composed of protons (positively charged particles) and neutrons (neutral particles).

VOCAB: ELECTRON CLOUD - It is a region surrounding the nucleus where one or more electrons are likely to be found

Electrons are the negatively charged particles that reside in a cloud outside the nucleus of the atom.

DID YOU KNOW ????

If an atom were the size of a sports arena, its nucleus would be just the size of a pea.

If you compacted all the atoms in a person they would fit on the head of a needle.

Electron and Electron Cloud

ELECTRONS…

Electrons are negatively charged particles that occupy the space in an atom outside the nucleus.

An electrons negative charge offsets the positive charge of protons.

In a neutral atom, there is always the same number of protons as there are electrons.

THE CLOUD…

• Electron Cloud- a region surrounding the nucleus where one or more electrons are most likely to be found. Finding their exact location at any point in time is much more
• Think of a ceiling fan. As the blades spin faster it is hard to tell the exact location of a single blade. Electrons zip around the nucleus at the speed of light…
• Think of how hard it would be to determine their exact location?????
Electron Energy:

Electrons traveling closer to the nucleus are STRONGLY attracted to it and have LESS energy.

Electrons farther away from nucleus are LESS attracted to it and have MORE energy.

Why do you think valence electrons (electrons circling farthest away from the nucleus) are more likely to be part of a chemical reaction?

The Size of Atoms

An atom is the smallest building block of matter BUT….

An atom is made up of even smaller subatomic particles.

Protons and neutrons are about the same size and weigh 1 AMU.

Electrons are smaller and have only about 1/200 the mass of a proton or neutron.

Sooooo….you could fit 2,000 electrons into one proton!!!!

Properties of Atomic Particles…

Protons are positive, electrons are not. Neutrons have no charge so they can’t be bought 

Differences in Atoms

Atomic Number- The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom of a element.

ALL ATOMS OF THE SAME ELEMENT HAVE THE SAME NUMBER OF PROTONS….

ALWAYS!!!!!!!

Every element on the periodic table has a different atomic number thus, a different amount of protons. Each time you add an proton, you change the element.

Neutrons and Isotopes

Neutrons have no charge and help hold the nucleus together.

Isotopes are atoms that have extra neutrons in the nucleus.

Because neutrons have no charge adding neutrons does NOT change the charge of the atom. However, it does change the atomic mass.

Isotope…The fat atom is dope!!!!!

Electrons and Ions

Remember…all atoms start out neutral with equal positive and negative charges

Protons = Electrons

However, atoms can gain or loose electrons during chemical bonding.

Ion- an atom that has a charge because it has gained or lost an electron

Losing an Electron = Positive ion

Na+ has 11 protons but only 10 electrons

Gaining an Electron = Negative ion

Cl- has 17 protons but has 18 electrons

Practice Questions

1. Where are the positively charged particles located in an atom?

2. Where is the mass of an atom located?

3. What is the difference between a neutral atom, an ion, and an isotope?

1. Where are the positively charged particles located in an atom? Positive protons are located in the nucleus of the atom

2. Where is the mass of an atom located?

The mass of an atom is made of the protons and neutrons which are both in the nucleus 

3. What is the difference between a neutral atom, an ion, and an isotope? In a neutral atom the protons = electrons. In an ion the atom has lost or gained and electron. An isotope is different versions of the same element with different numbers of neutrons.

Bellwork Day 2
• Complete the venn diagram below on neutral atoms, ions, and isotopes.

What do they have in common?

Learning Goals for Lesson 6.2
• Students will be able to
• Describe the structure of an atom including the charges of each subatomic particle.
• Explain where the majority of the mass of an atom is located.
• Differentiate between a neutral atom, and ion, and an isotope Our focus today 11/2
• Explain how you can tell what type of atom you are observing.
How do we know whether an atom is neutral or Charged (Ion)?

1. Copy and complete this sentence:

Neutral atoms have an equal number of positive _____________ and negative ________________.

How do we know whether an atom is neutral or Charged (Ion)?

1. Copy and complete this sentence:

Neutral atoms have an equal number of positive __PROTONS____ and negative __ELECTRONS_____.

2. Copy and complete this sentence:

A POSITIVE Ion has more positively charged _______________ than it has negatively charged _________________.

2. Copy and complete this sentence:

A POSITIVE Ion has more positively charged ____Protons___________ than it has negatively charged ___Electrons_________.

3. Copy and complete this sentence:

A NEGATIVE Ion has more negatively charged _______________ than it has positively charged _________________.

3. Copy and complete this sentence:

A NEGATIVE Ion has morenegatively charged ___Electrons____________ than it has positively charged __Protons_______________.

4. Copy and complete the sentence below

Atoms of the same element that have different numbers of _____________ are called Isotopes.

4. Copy and complete the sentence below

Atoms of the same element that have different numbers of _neutrons_____ are called Isotopes.

Practice with me 
• Determine which element the atom is and then whether it is neutral, a positive ion, a negative ion or an isotope.

1. An atom with an atomic number of 4 with no charge. _________________

2. An atom with an atomic number of 11 with a charge of +1 __________________

3. Mary has 2 atoms . . . . the first has 8 protons and 8 neutrons and the second has 8 protons and 10 neutrons. What does she have?

• Determine which element the atom is and then whether it is neutral, a positive ion, a negative ion or an isotope.

1. An atom with an atomic number of 4 with no charge. __neutral atom of Berylium_______________

2. An atom with an atomic number of 11 with a charge of +1 __a positive Sodium Ion or Na+________________

3. Mary has 2 atoms . . . . the first has 8 protons and 8 neutrons and the second has 8 protons and 10 neutrons. What does she have? 2 isotopes of Oxygen

Review Game for 6.2

NAME THAT ATOM

Game Instructions
• Then number 1-5.
• When I put up a clue you will discuss with your group what type of atom the clue is describing and write it down.
• The group with the most correct answers at the end will earn 5 extra credit points for the quiz on Monday so try to be quiet about your answers 
Question #1

I have an atomic number of 2 with 2 protons, 2 neutrons, and 2 electrons.

What am I?

(Remember you must say what my element name is and whether I am neutral, a positive ion, a negative ion, or an isotope)

Question #2

I have an atomic number of 17 with

17 protons and 18 electrons.

What am I?

(Remember you must say what my element name is and whether I am neutral, a positive ion, a negative ion, or an isotope)

Question #3

I am three different versions of an atom with 1 proton but different numbers of neutrons.

What am I?

(Remember you must say what my element name is and whether I am neutral, a positive ion, a negative ion, or an isotope)

Question #4

I have an atomic number of 11 with

11 protons and 10 electrons.

What am I?

(Remember you must say what my element name is and whether I am neutral, a positive ion, a negative ion, or an isotope)

Question #5

I have an atomic number of 35 with

a charge of negative 1. (Br -1)

What am I?

(Remember you must say what my element name is and whether I am neutral, a positive ion, a negative ion, or an isotope)

Question # 1

I have an atomic number of 2 with 2 protons, 2 neutrons, and 2 electrons. What am I?

A neutral atom of Helium

Question #2.

I have an atomic number of 17 with

17 protons and 18 electrons.

What am I? A Negative Chlorine Ion

Question #3.

I am three different versions of an atom with 1 proton but different numbers of neutrons.

What am I? Isotopes of Hydrogen

Question #4.

I have an atomic number of 11 with

11 protons and 10 electrons.

What am I? A Positive Sodium Ion