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  1. Chapter Introduction Lesson 1 Our Solar System Lesson 2 Life in the Solar System Lesson 3Human Space Travel Chapter Wrap-Up NASA Chapter Menu

  2. How and where do scientists look for life in the solar system? Chapter Introduction

  3. What do you think? Before you begin, decide if you agree or disagree with each of these statements. As you view this presentation, see if you change your mind about any of the statements. Chapter Introduction

  4. 1. Our solar system has eight planets. 2. Earth’s atmosphere is mostly oxygen. 3. Earth’s atmosphere protects life on Earth from dangerous solar radiation. 4. Scientists think conditions for life might exist on some moons in the solar system. Do you agree or disagree? Chapter Introduction

  5. 5. Astronauts float in space because there is no gravity above Earth’s atmosphere. 6. The United States is the only country with a human space-flight program. Do you agree or disagree? Chapter Introduction

  6. Our Solar System • How do objects in the solar system move? • How did distance from the Sun affect the makeup of objects in the solar system? • What objects are in the solar system? Lesson 1 Reading Guide - KC

  7. Our Solar System • meteoroid • meteor • meteorite • astronomical unit • planet • dwarf planet • satellite Lesson 1 Reading Guide - Vocab

  8. Origin and Structure of Our Solar System • Five billion years ago, our solar system formed from a spinning cloud of hydrogen gas and dust. • When gravity caused the cloud to collapse, the cloud began to spin faster and grow hotter. Lesson 1-1

  9. Origin and Structure of Our Solar System(cont.) • When the center of the cloud became hot enough for nuclear reactions to occur, a star formed—the Sun. • Small pieces of ice and rock orbiting the Sun clumped together and formed planets, asteroids, and other objects. Lesson 1-1

  10. Scientists use astronomical units to measure distances in our solar system. An astronomical unit (AU) is Earth’s average distance from the Sun, nearly 150 million km. Lesson 1-1

  11. Origin and Structure of Our Solar System(cont.) • The inner solar system—containing Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars—extends to about 4 AU from the Sun. • It also contains the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter, 2–4 AU from the Sun. Lesson 1-1

  12. Origin and Structure of Our Solar System(cont.) • The outer solar system contains the planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. • The solar system is often divided into regions depending on distance from the Sun. Lesson 1-1

  13. Origin and Structure of Our Solar System(cont.) The outer solar system extends from Jupiter’s orbit to the Oort cloud—a large, spherical shell of icy planetesimals that scientists think orbits the Sun from about 5,000 AU to as far as 50,000 AU away. Lesson 1-1

  14. Origin and Structure of Our Solar System(cont.) • The solar system is made mostly of hydrogen gas. • Ices, rocks, and metals make up less than 2 percent of our solar system’s mass. Lesson 1-1

  15. The Sun’s gravity pulls on planets and other objects that revolve around it. • The Sun and six of the eight planets, including Earth, rotate in a counterclockwise direction. Lesson 1-2

  16. Movement in the Solar System (cont.) • Venus and Uranus rotate clockwise. • While Earth rotates from west to east, objects in the sky appear to move from east to west. Lesson 1-2

  17. Movement in the Solar System (cont.) Why do most objects in our solar system move in the same direction? Lesson 1-3

  18. Objects in Our Solar System • Scientists group objects in our solar system into categories based on makeup, size, distance from the Sun, and whether the object orbits the Sun or another object. • As regions beyond the Sun cooled, some of the gases solidified into ices, rocks, and metals. Lesson 1-3

  19. Objects in Our Solar System(cont.) How did the distance from the Sun affect the makeup of objects in the solar system? Lesson 1-3

  20. Objects in Our Solar System(cont.) • The Sun is made mostly of hydrogen gas. • The Sun is the only star in our solar system, and it the largest object in the solar system. • The Sun’s diameter is 10 times that of Jupiter and more than 100 times that of Earth. Lesson 1-3

  21. Objects in Our Solar System(cont.) A planet orbits the Sun, is large enough to be nearly spherical in shape, and has no other large objects in its orbital path. Lesson 1-3

  22. Objects in Our Solar System(cont.) The four inner planets formed from rocks and metal, are smaller than the outer planets, have few or no moons, and rotate slowly. Lesson 1-3

  23. Objects in Our Solar System(cont.) The four outer planets formed mostly from gas and ice, are large, have many moons, rotate quickly, and have rings. Lesson 1-3

  24. Lesson 1-3

  25. Lesson 1-3

  26. Lesson 1-3

  27. Objects in Our Solar System(cont.) • Dwarf planets orbit the Sun and are nearly spherical in shape, but they share their orbital paths with other objects of similar size. • There are at least five dwarf planets in our solar system, but scientists think the solar system might contain hundreds—most of them orbiting the Sun beyond Neptune. Lesson 1-4

  28. Objects in Our Solar System(cont.) • All known dwarf planets, including Pluto, are smaller than Earth’s moon. • Ceres orbits the Sun between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, in the asteroid belt. Lesson 1-4

  29. Objects in Our Solar System(cont.) Asteroids are small, rocky or metallic objects that are remnants from the solar system’s formation. NASA/JPL/USGS Lesson 1-4

  30. Objects in Our Solar System(cont.) • A satellite is an object that orbits a larger object other than a star. • Natural satellites are also known as moons. • There are over 170 moons in the solar system. Lesson 1-4

  31. Objects in Our Solar System(cont.) • Like the asteroid belt, the Kuiper belt contains remnants from the solar system’s formation. • Kuiper belt objects are mostly ice. Lesson 1-4

  32. Objects in Our Solar System(cont.) Comets are small objects made mostly of ice which revolve around the Sun with long, stretched-out orbits. NASA Lesson 1-4

  33. Kuiper belt objects orbit the Sun beyond Neptune. Some comets originate in the Kuiper belt. Others originate farther away. NASA Lesson 1-4

  34. Objects in Our Solar System(cont.) • A meteoroid is a solar system object that is smaller than an asteroid or a comet. • A meteor is the streak of light created when a meteoroid enters Earth’s atmosphere. • A meteorite is a meteoroid that strikes Earth. Lesson 1-4

  35. Objects in Our Solar System(cont.) meteor from Greek meteoros, means “high up” Lesson 1-4

  36. Objects in Our Solar System(cont.) What objects are in our solar system? Lesson 1-4

  37. The inner solar system extends from the Sun through the asteroid belt. Lesson 1 - VS

  38. Even some asteroids have satellites. NASA/JPL/USGS Lesson 1 - VS

  39. Comet tails can be millions of kilometers long. Lesson 1 - VS

  40. What orbits the Sun, is large enough to be nearly spherical, and has no other large objects in its orbital path? A. dwarf planet B. meteoroid C. planet D. satellite Lesson 1 – LR1

  41. The majority of objects in the Kuiper belt are comprised of which type of matter? A. gas B. ice C. metal D. rock Lesson 1 – LR2

  42. How is Pluto classified? A. asteroid B. comet C. meteoroid D. dwarf planet Lesson 1 – LR3

  43. 1. Our solar system has eight planets. 2. Earth’s atmosphere is mostly oxygen. Do you agree or disagree? Lesson 1 - Now

  44. Life in the Solar System • What conditions on Earth enable life to exist? • What conditions on other bodies in the solar system might enable life to exist? • Where might life possibly exist beyond Earth? Lesson 2 Reading Guide - KC

  45. Life in the Solar System • astrobiology • organic • geyser Lesson 2 Reading Guide - Vocab

  46. Conditions for Life on Earth • Despite the extreme conditions in which some organisms live, all of Earth’s life-forms need the same basic things to survive: a source of energy, liquid water, and nourishment. • Astrobiologyis the study of the origin, development, distribution, and future of life in the universe. Lesson 2-1

  47. Conditions for Life on Earth(cont.) astrobiology from Greek astron, means “star”; Greek bios, means “life”; and Greek logia, means “study of” Lesson 2-1

  48. Conditions for Life on Earth(cont.) What do organisms on Earth need to survive? Lesson 2-1

  49. Conditions for Life on Earth(cont.) • The Sun is the source of almost all energy on Earth. • Sunlight provides light and thermal energy. • A small percentage of organisms on Earth receive energy from chemicals or from Earth itself. Lesson 2-1

  50. Conditions for Life on Earth(cont.) • Earth’s atmosphere absorbs sunlight during the day and keeps thermal energy from escaping into space at night. • Earth’s atmosphere absorbs most of the Sun’s ultraviolet light, as well as X-rays and other potentially harmful light from the Sun. • Earth’s atmosphere also protects Earth’s surface from meteoroids. Lesson 2-1