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Chapter 7. The Integumentary System. Integumentary system functions:. Protection Excretion Temperature maintenance Insulation and cushion Vitamin D3 synthesis Sensory detection. The integumentary system consists of. Cutaneous membrane Epidermis Dermis Accessory structures

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chapter 7

Chapter 7

The Integumentary System

integumentary system functions
Integumentary system functions:
  • Protection
  • Excretion
  • Temperature maintenance
  • Insulation and cushion
  • Vitamin D3 synthesis
  • Sensory detection
the integumentary system consists of
The integumentary system consists of
  • Cutaneous membrane
    • Epidermis
    • Dermis
  • Accessory structures
  • Subcutaneous layer
    • It is not part of the integumentary system
    • It separates the integumentary system from the deep fascia
    • Also known as hypodermis and superficial fascia
cells of the epidermis
Cells of the epidermis
  • Keratinocytes
    • Most abundant
    • Produce keratin
      • Fibrous protein that makes the epidermis though and water resistant
  • Melanocytes
    • Secretes melanin
      • Protects the cell against UV rays
    • freckles
cells of the epidermis1
Cells of the epidermis
  • Langerhan’s cells
    • Cells that belong to the immune system
  • Merkel cells
    • Merkel discs = Merkel cell + nerve ending
    • Sense of touch
layers of the epidermis
Layers of the epidermis:
  • Stratum germinativum or basale
  • Stratum spinosum
  • Stratum granulosum
  • Stratum lucidum
  • Stratum corneum
stratum germinativum basale
Stratum Germinativum (basale)
  • Single row of cells
  • Forms epidermal ridges
  • Basal or germinative cells
  • Merkel cells (touch)
  • Melanocytes
stratum spinosum
Stratum Spinosum
  • Prickle cells
  • Several layers of cells
  • Cells held together by desmosomes
  • Presence of Langerhan’s cells
  • Cells contain pre-keratin
stratum granulosum
Stratum Granulosum
  • 3 to 5 layers of keratinocytes
  • No cell divisions
  • Lamellated granules
    • Contain a water resistant glycolipid that reaches the extracellular space
  • Keratohyalin granules
    • Combine with the intermediate filaments to form keratin that will make the skin stronger
stratum lucidum clear layer
Stratum lucidum (clear layer)
  • Dead keratinocytes
  • Flat cells
  • In thick skin
stratum corneum
Stratum corneum
  • Outmost layer
  • 20-30 layers of cells
  • Dead cells
  • Cytoplasm filled with keratin
  • Constantly shedding and replaced
dermal layers
Dermal layers
  • Papillary layer
    • Contains blood vessels, lymphatics
    • Free nerve endings
    • Meissner corpuscles (touch, pressure)
    • Loose areolar connective tissue
    • Presence of dermal papillae
      • Produce fingerprints
        • Genetically determined
dermal layers1
Dermal layers
  • Reticular Layer
    • Dense irregular connective tissue
    • Fewer cells
    • Contains network of collagen and elastic fibers to resist tension
    • Sweat and sebaceous glands
    • Rich blood supply
    • Hair follicles
    • Pacinian corpuscles (deep pressure)
dermis
Dermis
  • Both layers are rich in collagen and elastic fibers
  • Numerous fibroblasts, adipocytes, macrophages
  • Richly vascularized
    • Regulation of body temperature
    • Decubitus ulcers
skin color depends on
Skin color depends on
  • Blood supply
  • Carotene
    • Present in the s.corneum and hipodermis
  • Melanin
abnormal skin color
Abnormal skin color
  • Flushed
    • Fever, hypertension
  • Pale
  • Jaundice
  • Cyanoses
nails
Nails
  • Nail bodycovers the nail bed
  • Nail production occurs at the nail matrix
  • Eponychium (cuticle) overlies root
  • Free edge of nail extends over hyponychium
  • Lunula
  • Root
  • Nail folds
hairs
Hairs
  • Originate in hair follicle
  • Composed of rootand shaft
  • Root base (hair papilla) surrounded by hair bulb and root hair plexus
  • Cuticle = superficial dead protective layer
  • Cortex
  • Medulla
slide30
Hair
  • Follicle
    • Epidermal layer
      • Internal epithelial root sheath
      • External epithelial root sheath
    • Glassy membrane
    • Connective root sheath
    • Papilla
      • Blood vessels enter the hair
slide31
Hair
  • Arrector pili muscle
    • Smooth muscle
    • When contracted cause dimpling of the skin
cutaneous glands
Cutaneous Glands
  • Sebaceous
  • Sudoriferous
sebaceous glands
Sebaceous glands
  • Discharge waxy sebum onto hair follicle or on the skin surface
  • Not present on palms and soles
  • Sebum
    • Oil + dead cells
    • Keep skin and hair moist
    • Black head
    • Acne
sudoriferous glands
Sudoriferous glands
  • Apocrine sweat glands
    • Axilla and genital areas
    • Begin secretion at puberty
    • Produce odorous secretion rich in protein and fat
  • Merocrine(eccrine) sweat gland
    • All over the body
    • Regulates body temperature
    • Sweat or perspiration
      • Water, salt, urea
fingerprint
Fingerprint
  • Impressions caused by
    • Ink, sweat, oil, blood,etc
  • Patterns
    • Archs
    • Loops
    • whorls
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