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US in World War II

US in World War II

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US in World War II

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  1. US in World War II

  2. Causes and Home Front

  3. Isolationism • After WWI, US returned to isolationism • Raised tariffs • Restricted immigration • Insisted wartime allies pay back debts • Exceptions: • Washington Naval Conference • Limit size of navy • Kellog-Briand Peace Pact • Renounce the use of war

  4. Good Neighbor • President Hoover and Roosevelt worked to better relations with Latin American countries • “Good Neighbor Policy” • Not interfere with the internal affairs of Latin American countries • Relations between US and the countries Latin American began to improve

  5. Causes of WWII • Rise of dictators • Joseph Stalin in Russiain Russia • Emperor Hirohito and General Tojo in Japan • Adolf Hitler and the Nazis in Germany • Benito Mussolini and the Fascists in Italy • Extreme nationalistic, racist and anti-Semitic views

  6. Causes of WWII • Failure of the League of Nations • Too weak to resist dictators • Collective security – peaceful nations banning together to stop aggressive nations – failed when US and Soviet Union did not join • League did nothing to stop Hitler rebuilding army, Italy attacking Ethiopia, Japan invading Manchuria and China…

  7. Causes of World War II • Appeasement • Hitler kept annexing countries, Britain and France let him to avoid war • Austria – 1938 • Sudetenland (part of Czechoslovakia) • Munich Conference (1938) • Gave Hitler part of Czechoslovakia WITHOUT asking Czechs to avoid war • Hitler decided Britain and France were weak and kept making more and more demands

  8. Beginning of War in Europe • Hitler demands Poland; France and Britain say no • Hitler signs non-aggression pact with Stalin and invade Poland September 1939 • France and Britain declare war • World War II begins • Hitler used blitzkrieg to defeat the Poles, French, and most of Europe • New technologies and bombings made it a more offensive war

  9. So where’s the US? • Still “cautiously neutral” • Americans busy with Great Depression to be too involved overseas • Congress starting passing laws to stay out of the war • Neutrality Acts (1935-1937) – prohibited Americans from traveling on ships of nations at war • Could not sell arms to countries at war either • Allowed to sell non-military goods to the Brits and other non-aggressive nations on a “cash-and-carry” basis

  10. Where’s the US? • Japan invaded China in 1937, Roosevelt gives “Quarantine Speech” • Growing unrest in the world and peaceful nations needed to act together to quarantine aggressive nations • Boycott aggressors • Most Americans opposed military action

  11. Where’s the US? • Britain didn’t want China to fall to Japan • Used Burma Road to send supplies • 700 mile route cut off, American volunteer fighters known as Flyer Tigers recruited to send supplies and engage with Japanese pilots • Destroyed 300 Japanese aircraft

  12. Where’s the US? • 1939 – started making preparations for war just in case • More Army and Navy spending, peacetime draft, Roosevelt ran for a third term • 1941 – Lend-Lease Act • Sell, lease, or lend war materials to “any country whose defense the President deems vital to the defense of the United States” • Began protecting British ships carrying supplies for the British

  13. Where’s the US? • Roosevelt told Americans he hoped to establish a world on the Four Freedoms • Freedom of speech and expression, religion, from want, and from fear • 1941 – Met with British Prime Minister Winston Churchill • Announced their countries wanted no territorial gains, freedom of the seas, and and end to war • Atlantic Charter – laying foundation for United Nations

  14. US Enters the War • Japan had become industrial in 19th century • Needed raw materials and markets • Wanted to replace European imperialism in Asia • 1931 – Japan invaded Manchuria • 1937 – Japan attacked the rest of China • 1941 – Japan occupied southern Indochina • Roosevelt froze Japanese assets in the US and cut off trade with Japan • Resume trade if Japan withdrew from China • Japan refused

  15. US Enters the War • Japan decided to attack Indonesia for oil • Doing so would bring US into war, so they struck first • Japanese leaders believed a surprise attack would eliminate US naval power from the Pacific and allow Japan time to fortify • Before US could recover, Japan would be able to finish taking over East Asia and the Pacific • Americans would quickly tire of war and negotiate a peace compromise

  16. Pearl Harbor • December 7, 1941 • Two waves of Japanese planes attacked US Pacific fleet stationed in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii • Sank or severely damaged 18 US ships • More than 260 airplanes damaged or destroyed • 6,000 Americans killed or injured

  17. Pearl Harbor • Four days later, Germany and Italy declared war on the US • US on a war of two fronts – Atlantic and Pacific

  18. The Home Front • Paying for the war • War Bonds • Citizens bought to help fund the war • Reduced currency in economy to combat inflation • 85 million Americans bought bonds, bring $185 billion to treasury • War cost $350 billion • US became debtor nation • High level of volunteerism – willingness of Americans to help in the war effort. • http://youtu.be/IvqrjtTQef8

  19. The Home Front • Rationing • Americans asked to conserve everything for the war effort • Ration books given on certain goods to avoid public anger over shortages • Draft and expansion of industrial production during the war finally brought an end to the high unemployment of the Great Depression • Women, African Americans, and other minorities filled in gap as workers went to war

  20. The Home Front • Victory Gardens • Vegetable gardens to ensure enough food for everyone • Food grown by farmers sent to soldiers overseas

  21. The Home Front • Office of War Information • OWI • Control of content and imagery of war messages • Pro-Allied, anti Axis propaganda • Own radio programs, newsreels, and required all movies to contribute in some way to war effort • Voice of America • Send messages overseas • Stir up distrust of Germans, Italians, and Japanese leaders • Lower morale of enemy soldiers

  22. The Home Front • Women in the work force • Could not enlist in regular army, joined Women’s Army Corps or WACS • Took clerical jobs in the military • Replaced many jobs usually held by men • More men could go into combat • Rosie the Riveter • 1941-1945: 6.5 million women entered the work force

  23. Opportunities and Obstacles for Ethnic Minorities • African Americans • Many worked in war industries and government agencies • Played a big role in WWII • More than 2 and a half million registered for the draft • One million served, even though they were in segregated units

  24. Opportunities and Obstacles for Ethnic Minorities • African Americans • Finally allowed to form all black combat units • Tuskegee Airmen • Fighter group in the Air Corps • Provide escorts for bombing missions • Performed so well bombers asked for their support • 1944 – Army had to allow African Americans to engage in combat on the ground

  25. Opportunities and Obstacles for Ethnic Minorities • Native Americans • Enlisted for service in higher proportion than any other group • More than 25,000 served in combat • 40,000 left reservations to work in defense industries • Mexican Americans • Both Army and Navy and served in both campaigns • Continued to face segregated housing, high unemployment, low wages

  26. Forced Relocation of Japanese Americans • Pearl Harbor created fear of Japanese Americans • Afraid they would commit acts of sabotage • Racially motivated since no evidence any more disloyal than German or Italian Americans…

  27. Forced Relocation of Japanese Americans • February 1942 – Executive Order 906 • Permitted military commanders to require Japanese Americans to relocate to interior internment camps away from Western Coastal regions • In camps – primitive and crowded conditions

  28. Forced Relocation of Japanese Americans • Raised constitutional issues in wartime • Roosevelt justified that it was a military necessity • Korematsu v. US • Korematsu was Japanese citizen convicting of remaining in restricted area • SC upheld that constitutional liberties may be limited in wartime • 50 years later, Congress apologized and paid compensation to the families involved.

  29. Forced Relocation • Small number of German and Italian resident aliens also interned • 2,000 German aliens forcibly sent back to Germany • Germans also sent from Latin America to US to be used in prisoner exchanges with Germany

  30. Unit 7 Test

  31. World War II

  32. The War in Europe • Roosevelt decided to focus on defeating Germany first • Hitler controlled most of Europe and North Africa • Hitler invaded Soviet Union in June 1941 and declared war on US before defeating Britain • Both big mistakes • Late 1941 – Hitler stopped just before Moscow • Roosevelt and Churchill promised Stalin to open a second front against Germany in the West to help relieve Soviet Army

  33. Africa and Italy • Churchill advised delay before invading Europe • 1942 – Allies landed in North Africa • Defeat Germans and head into Mediterranean and into Sicily and Italy in 1943

  34. Africa and Italy • George Patton • One of the commanders • Military family • Served under Pershing in WWI • Given command of Third Army • Popular commander and unconventional leader • Went quickly through Europe, capturing large numbers of enemy soldiers and freeing a vast territory

  35. France and Germany • June 6, 1944 – D-Day • 156,000 Allied troops under General Dwight Eisenhower • Invaded 5 beaches of Normandy • General Omar Bradley chosen to lead first American army in France • Allied planes attacked Nazi forces • Amphibious landing crafts carried thousands of Allied troops to the beaches of Normandy

  36. France and Germany • After D-Day, began moving eastward • Liberated Paris in August 1944 • Allies moved so quick got surprised by German counter-attack in Battle of the Bulge December 1944 • German attack collapsed afterward

  37. France and Germany • Allied troops crossed Rhine River and General Bradley pushed troops for final offensive into German • American, British, and French from the west, Soviet rom the east • May 1945 – Soviets captured Berlin • Hitler committed suicide and Germany surrendered • More than 20 million Soviet soldiers and citizens were killed

  38. France and Germany • Vernon Baker • One of the first African American soldiers to see combat in the war • 1945 – slipped through mine fields, barbed wire, and German defenses and single-handedly removed 3 machine gun nests, 2 observation posts, and 2 bunkers • Nominated for Distinguished Service Cross • 50 years later – President Clinton gave him the Congressional Medal of Honor

  39. Holocaust • The attempted genocide of the entire Jewish race • Final Solution – murder all European Jews • Housed and killed Jews in concentration camps • 6 million Jews killed • 6 million gypsies, Slavs, political prisoners, elderly, mentally disabled, and others also died in concentration camps

  40. Holocaust • Liberation of concentration camps • During last months of the war, Allies advanced into Germany and found camps • American army units the first to liberate camps • Shocked to see prisoners

  41. War in Asia • US was separated from Japan by Pacific Ocean • After Pearl Harbor, Japanese took Malaya, Burma, Indonesia, Singapore, Hong Kong, and threatened Australia, India, Midway, and Hawaii

  42. War in Asia • Bataan Death March – 1942 • Philippines surrendered to Japanese one month after Pearl Harbor • Japanese forced prisoners to walk 40 mile march through the jungle • 5,000 of Americans died along the way.

  43. War in Asia • 1943 – War began to turn against Japan because of US “island-hopping” campaign • Navajo Code Talkers • Navajo language is unwritten and complex • Used this language for all communication and Japanese unable to crack code

  44. War in Asia • Battle of Midway • Turning point in the Pacific • Japanese wanted to lure US Pacific fleet to battle near Midway where he believed he could destroy them • US Navy deciphered Japanese codes and knew of surprise attack

  45. War in Asia • Battle of Midway • Admiral Chester Nimitz (Commander-in-Chief of US Pacific fleet) • US destroyed 4 Japanese aircraft carriers, ending Japan’s strength in the Pacific

  46. War in Asia • Douglas MacArthur commanded US Army in Pacific • Began campaign on the Solomon Islands trying to take the Guadalcanal • Series of assaults drained Japanese resources • Took Philippines and Guam • June 195 – captured Iwo Jima and Okinawa and close enough to launch attacks against Japanese homeland • General George C. Marshall acted as Chief of Staff and “organizer of victory” • Built up and supplied army of 8 million men • Helped oversee creation of first atomic bomb

  47. The Atomic Bomb • 1939 – Albert Einstein informed Roosevelt Germany might be developing atomic bomb • 1942 – Roosevelt sent team of scientists, several European refugees, to New Mexico to develop the first atomic bomb. • July 1945 was successful • Germany already defeated • Roosevelt died of a heart attack in April 1945 (after being elected 4th time) – just before Germany surrendered

  48. The Atomic Bomb • President Harry Truman (Roosevelt’s vice president) feared invasion of Japan would cause too many causalities • Truman decided using the atomic bomb would mean less casualties

  49. The Atomic Bomb • August 6, 1945 • Atomic bomb on city of Hiroshima • August 9, 1945 • Atomic bomb on city of Nagasaki • 230,000 people killed in both explosions combined • Critics argued Truman could have detonated bombs on uninhabited islands • Japan surrendered shortly after second explosion • American leaders agreed to let Japanese emperor stay on the throne

  50. Technology of World War II • Radar, sonar, cryptic code breaking, proximity fuze, antibiotics, jet and rocket engines