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1800-1945: Southern Africa

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1800-1945: Southern Africa - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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1800-1945: Southern Africa

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  1. 1800-1945: Southern Africa • 1800-1825 internal warfare, depopulation, forced migrations of Bantu mfecane era (crushing era) • Caused by population growth & competition among rising military states • Creation of new multitribal, multilingual Bantu states in modern day Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Malawi, Zambia, Tanzania • (LEFT) Shaka Zulu, most important military leader, practiced total war to est. large Zulu nation • Caused new kingdoms to grow Lesotho founded by King Mosheshwe (in modern day South Africa)

  2. Cape Colony • Mfecane nation-building ended by European colonials • 1806 British take Cape Colony from Dutch • 1835-1841 Great Trek of Boer voortrekers Dutch settlers move north and NE to avoid conflict with Xhosa people & British • Were attacked by Zulus along way • 6,000 Afrikaners from eastern Cape NE to southern Africa, Natal & land above Orange River • Afrikaners create Orange Fee State after 1850

  3. Islamic Reform Movements • 1800s efforts made by some Islamic states before European colonialism took hold • Many rural people still pagan, while ruling classes & urbanites had converted • Militant jihad movements firmly est. Islam’s place in Africa Sokoto=capital of Fulani empire established after 1804 in the Jihad led by Usman dan Fodio

  4. Increasing European Influence • European penetration limited, just coastal slave trade • 19th century saw English, French & German explorers map the geography of the continent • Seek sources of Nile, Zambezi, Congo; wonders of Mt. Kilimajaro, Lake Tanganyika; fables of Timbuktu

  5. British explorer • Dr. David Livingstone, British missionary • Asked by The Royal Geographical Society to explore the great African watersheds – esp. the sources of the Nile • Tracked down by journalist Stanley=famous phrase

  6. Christian missionaries • Catholic & Protestant missionaries increasingly arrive in Africa late 1800s • Tried to Christianize Africans & advocate end of remaining slave trade • Created schools, brought medicine, some literacy, more knowledge to Europe • Also gave colonists justification for their presence weapons of imperialism • Many missionaries succumbed to malaria, yellow fever, sleeping sickness • (LEFT): Christian missionary in Tanzania

  7. The Colonial “Scramble for Africa” • Before 1850, only Dutch in Cape & French in Algeria • From 1880s European presence increases

  8. Why colonize to Africa? • Popular interest • Commercial interest • Industrial markets & natural resources • Intra-European competition for power & prestige HOW? • Made possible by economic, technological, & military superiority • Steamboats made rivers navigable between waterfalls • French est. direct control, British indirect • French conquest of Algeria constituted the 1st major European colony in Africa (1830-1847)

  9. The Scramble Continues • Leopold II of Belgium & Otto von Bismarck of Germany followed • Italy took Eritrea, Somaliland, Libya, & was repelled from Ethiopian by their army in 1896 • Scramble ended by the start of WWI

  10. African Resistance & Nationalism • Many African states resisted militarily • Though European colonial borders were mostly arbitrary, nationalist movements grew within these boundaries leading to many modern states • Use of the common European language aided growth of nationalism • Some movements used Western religious & political ideals to combat Western colonialism