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Apartheid in South Africa

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  1. Apartheid in South Africa APARTHEID IN SOUTH AFRICA

  2. History of South Africa • Dutch followed by the British began colonizing South Africa in early 17th Century(1600s). • South Africa gained independence in 1910, 50 years ahead of most African nations. • Once South Africa gained independence, the leaders of the country were of white European decent, not black Africans.

  3. Colonization of South Africa

  4. Indigenous People • The Khosian and Bantu people inhabited South Africa for over 1500 years before Europeans arrived. • Khosian people lived in the Kalahari and Namib deserts and were nomadic hunters and gatherers. • Bantu speaking Zulu tribe lived in the savanna areas further inland and organized into permanent farming villages growing crops and raising cattle.

  5. Zulu Warriors

  6. Conflicts Arise • In 1652 the first Dutch settlers arrived and set up a fort at Cape Town. • More Europeans arrive to take advantage of rich farmlands and freedom. • Conflicts between the native tribes and the Dutch Boers became frequent as competition for farmlands increased.

  7. Boers at the Cape of Good Hope

  8. Conflict Continued • In mid 1800s diamonds were discovered luring more settlers and causing increased fighting. • The 19th century was marked by bitter violence between the British, the Boers, and the Africans, known as the Boers War. • In the end the British took control of South Africa and made it an official British colony.

  9. Boers War

  10. Apartheid • Apartheid – laws that were set up by the European Afrikaners in South Africa to limit the rights of the black Africans. • Apartheid prevented black South Africans from holding certain jobs, attending certain schools, and even limited where they could live, shop, and travel; had to have a pass to be in certain areas or you were arrested. • In 1948 Apartheid became official government policy when the Afrikaners gained a majority in parliament.

  11. Apartheid • Africans were divided into 4 groups: Whites, Asians, Coloureds, and Blacks. • Blacks – lowest of the four categories, fewest rights, lived in poor segregated communities, went to worst schools, had worst jobs, received worst health care. • Townships – if blacks received a job in a city they were forced to live in townships which were slums with no running water and tiny houses. • Homelands – reservations in rural areas for the native tribes of South Africa.

  12. Segregation in South Africa

  13. Black South Africans were not allowed to be citizens or vote in elections.

  14. ANC Fights Back • ANC – African National Congress, group of black South Africans that opposed Apartheid. • Nelson Mandela – leader of the ANC, led peaceful protests and marches at first but after peaceful protests were met by police brutality he began using guerilla warfare and sabotage. • 1964 Mandela arrested for treason and sentenced to prison for life. • 1970s and 1980s protests continued. The UN placed sanctions on South Africa.

  15. Death of Apartheid • F.W. de Klerk – South African president in the 1990s began to repeal some of Apartheid’s harshest laws and ordered the release of Nelson Mandela and other political prisoners. • 1994 South Africa holds first elections that allowed all citizens the right to vote and Nelson Mandela is elected first black President of South Africa. • Apartheid officially ends but much work needs to be done to repair the years of damage.

  16. Reconciliation • Truth and Reconciliation Committee – to “put behind us all the pain and division of apartheid with all the violence that has ravaged our communities in its name”.

  17. South Africa after Apartheid • Whites are still more likely to work in higher paying jobs in business and in government. • More blacks live in poor rural areas. • Modern schools are now open to all students. • Adult education and training classes have been opened to all citizens. • South Africa has one of the strongest economies in Africa and one of the most stable democracies on the continent.