Apartheid in South Africa APARTHEID IN SOUTH AFRICA
History of South Africa • Dutch followed by the British began colonizing South Africa in early 17th Century(1600s). • South Africa gained independence in 1910, 50 years ahead of most African nations. • Once South Africa gained independence, the leaders of the country were of white European decent, not black Africans.
Indigenous People • The Khosian and Bantu people inhabited South Africa for over 1500 years before Europeans arrived. • Khosian people lived in the Kalahari and Namib deserts and were nomadic hunters and gatherers. • Bantu speaking Zulu tribe lived in the savanna areas further inland and organized into permanent farming villages growing crops and raising cattle.
Conflicts Arise • In 1652 the first Dutch settlers arrived and set up a fort at Cape Town. • More Europeans arrive to take advantage of rich farmlands and freedom. • Conflicts between the native tribes and the Dutch Boers became frequent as competition for farmlands increased.
Conflict Continued • In mid 1800s diamonds were discovered luring more settlers and causing increased fighting. • The 19th century was marked by bitter violence between the British, the Boers, and the Africans, known as the Boers War. • In the end the British took control of South Africa and made it an official British colony.
Apartheid • Apartheid – laws that were set up by the European Afrikaners in South Africa to limit the rights of the black Africans. • Apartheid prevented black South Africans from holding certain jobs, attending certain schools, and even limited where they could live, shop, and travel; had to have a pass to be in certain areas or you were arrested. • In 1948 Apartheid became official government policy when the Afrikaners gained a majority in parliament.
Apartheid • Africans were divided into 4 groups: Whites, Asians, Coloureds, and Blacks. • Blacks – lowest of the four categories, fewest rights, lived in poor segregated communities, went to worst schools, had worst jobs, received worst health care. • Townships – if blacks received a job in a city they were forced to live in townships which were slums with no running water and tiny houses. • Homelands – reservations in rural areas for the native tribes of South Africa.
ANC Fights Back • ANC – African National Congress, group of black South Africans that opposed Apartheid. • Nelson Mandela – leader of the ANC, led peaceful protests and marches at first but after peaceful protests were met by police brutality he began using guerilla warfare and sabotage. • 1964 Mandela arrested for treason and sentenced to prison for life. • 1970s and 1980s protests continued. The UN placed sanctions on South Africa.
Death of Apartheid • F.W. de Klerk – South African president in the 1990s began to repeal some of Apartheid’s harshest laws and ordered the release of Nelson Mandela and other political prisoners. • 1994 South Africa holds first elections that allowed all citizens the right to vote and Nelson Mandela is elected first black President of South Africa. • Apartheid officially ends but much work needs to be done to repair the years of damage.
Reconciliation • Truth and Reconciliation Committee – to “put behind us all the pain and division of apartheid with all the violence that has ravaged our communities in its name”.
South Africa after Apartheid • Whites are still more likely to work in higher paying jobs in business and in government. • More blacks live in poor rural areas. • Modern schools are now open to all students. • Adult education and training classes have been opened to all citizens. • South Africa has one of the strongest economies in Africa and one of the most stable democracies on the continent.