The Population of South Africa The Dutch arrived in the 1600s and were the first Europeans to settle in South Africa. (AKA: Boers/Afrikaners) Over time, German and French Settlers joined them and they began to speak their own language - Afrikaans
Imperialism • The British began to settle in South Africa in the early 1800s. • By the end of the century, diamonds and gold drew many British to South Africa. • War between the British and the Afrikaners broke out in 1899 and after three years, the British won.
Apartheid In South Africa • Objective: To understand the events that led to the creation of an independent South Africa. • To understand the policy of apartheid and its impact. • To understand what caused the end of apartheid and the challenges that remain.
South African Union • With the founding of the South African Union in 1910, the British colony and the independent Boer Republics were united. • Due to harsh treatment of the Boers during the Anglo-Boer War, the British granted internal political control to the Boer minority. • South Africa gained self-rule under the British Empire. • A modern "democratic" state was formed, in which only the white population could execute the right to vote. First Prime Minister, Louis Botha (Afrikaner)
National Party (1948) • In 1948, the National Party came to power in South Africa. • Promoted Afrikaner, or Dutch South African, nationalism. • Instituted a strict racial segregation policy called apartheid. • In 1961, South Africa was granted total independence from Great Britain. National Party Prime Minister (1948-1954), Daniel Malan (Afrikaner)
Do these signs look familiar? They should, they are exactly like the ones found in the United States before the Civil Rights Movement.
APARTHEID APARTHEID 46 YEARS IN 90 SECONDS - BBC NEWS • “[Apartheid] is “the only basis on which the character and the future of each race can be protected and made secure…” - Hendrik Verwoerd, Prime Minister 1958-1966
Segregation Apartheid • For more than 40 years, people protested the ________________, which is the Afrikaans word for “Apartness” • In 1991, the South African government finally ended the segregation. • In 1994, South Africa had its first free election in which all ethnic groups could vote. • ____________________ was elected president of the new, equal South African Nation Nelson Mandela
Decolonization Why was South African Decolonization led and controlled by the white Afrikaner minority? • South Africa was a settler colony with larger European population than most settler colonies. • Afrikaners had long heritage of living in South Africa – as long as some Europeans in North America. • Afrikaners were distinct from the Dutch - had no European homeland to return to if ousted. • Afrikaners shared ideology of white supremacy and limited the education, opportunities, and rights of the black Africans – policy of apartheid
What is Apartheid? • The word means “apartness” or “separateness” • Defined as a complete separation of the races • Separated whites from blacks in all public places, schools, and housing • Blacks and whites could not marry • Blacks couldn’t own land or have good jobs • Enforced by the police, if violated, one could go to Jail Segregated stands at South African stadium
Laws Instituted By The South African Government • The Population Registration Act • The Group Areas Act • Pass Laws • Bantu Homelands Citizenship Act
Population Registration Act (1950) • Classified population by race. It put all South Africans into three racial categories: • Bantu (black African), • White, • Or Colored (of mixed race) • A fourth category, Asian (Indians and Pakistanis), was added later.
The Group Areas Act (1950) • Assigned races to different residential and business sections in urban areas. • Members of other races were forbidden to live, work or own land in areas belonging to other races.
Pass Laws • Required non-whites to carry a "pass" to prove they had permission to travel in white areas.
Bantu Homelands Citizenship Act (1959) • Created ten African "homelands" or small nations. • Made every black South African a citizen of one of the homelands, effectively excluding blacks from South African politics.
Black Township in South Africa 13% of South Africa's total area for almost 75% of its population!
The Homelands Agricultural production was not sufficient to support the populations of the homelands. The homelands were not developed industrially. This led to a situation in which working men would migrate into white South Africa, work there for 11 months and return once a year to their families for four weeks.
Violence in the Homelands The governments in the homelands were mostly made up of the black elite and were often authoritarian regimes, which found little acceptance among the people.
How Was Apartheid Enforced? In 1953, the Public Safety Act and the Criminal Law Amendment Act were passed:
Enforcing Apartheid • Empowered the government to declare states of emergency • Increased penalties for protesting against the law. • Penalties included fines, imprisonment and whippings.
During the Second World War Mandela, along with other young Africans set about taking the ANC message to the millions of lower class black people around South Africa. These young liberals set about firing up the conservative, conciliatory methods of the ANC old guard in favor of a radical form of Nationalism based on the principle of national self determination. Development of Nationalism Nelson, inspired you are to use non-violence! Freedom, you will gain one day! Nelson Mandela joined the ANC at the age of 24
The ANC Youth League was formed in 1947. They vigorously opposed the apartheid policies of the ruling National Party, using the tools of boycott, strike and civil disobedience. In 1952 Mandela led the defiance campaign which involved non-violent resistance to unjust laws. THE ANC YOUTH LEAGUE Nelson Mandela, a leader of the ANC, burns pass.
Sharpeville Massacre (1960) In 1960, a large group of blacks in Sharpeville refused to carry their passes; the government declared a state of emergency. The emergency lasted for 156 days, leaving 69 people dead and 187 people wounded.
Sharpeville Massacre The Sharpeville Massacre signaled the start of armed resistance in South Africa, and prompted worldwide condemnation of South Africa's Apartheid policies.
After the Sharpeville Massacre the ANC was officially banned. A guerrilla arm of the ANC was then formed called Spear of the Nation. Spear of the Nation engaged in Governmental sabotage, with Mandela at the forefront. In mid 1962 he was jailed for five years for encouraging strike action. While serving this sentence he was charged with sabotage.. Spear of the Nation was a militant wing of the ANC, similar to the Mau Mau rebels in Kenya. Spear of the Nation
Mandela’s Defense “There are many people who feel that it is useless and futile for us to continue talking peace and nonviolence against a government whose reply is only savage attacks on an unarmed and defenseless people.” "Each disturbance … showed that a Government which uses force to maintain its rule teaches the oppressed to use force to oppose it.*" "Sabotage did not involve loss of life, and it offered the best hope for future race relations. Bitterness would be kept to a minimum and, if the policy bore fruit, democratic government could become a reality.”
Mandela Imprisoned In 1962 Mandela was convicted of sabotage and conspiracy to overthrow the government. He was sentenced to life imprisonment on the Robben Island Maximum Security Prison Film Clip
Nelson Mandela in Prison Mandela was Imprisoned from 1964-1990
Throughout the 70s and 80s his imprisonment became a rallying point for black resistance. Throughout the 80s he rejected several offers of release, all conditional on his renouncing certain beliefs. He would not be released until February 11, 1990, after 27 years in prison. Mandela Interview With Oprah Rally Cry Sun City - Artists United Against Apartheid
Steve Biko: Anti-Apartheid Martyr • Formed the Black Consciousness Group: • He provided legal aid and medical clinics, as well as helping to develop cottage industries for disadvantaged black communities. • Banned from South Africa for his protests, arrested four times and made to follow restrictions of travel and public appearances. His philosophy that political freedom could only be achieved if blacks stopped feeling inferior to whites attracted enormous international attention, and is considered by many to be the turning point in the demise of apartheid.
Biko Imprisoned Biko was imprisoned where he was kept chained and naked Biko was beaten by the police and had slipped into a continual, semi-conscious state. The police physician recommended a transfer to the hospital and Biko was transported 1,200 km to Pretoria – a 12-hour journey which he made lying naked in the back of a Land Rover. A few hours later, on September 12, 1977 alone and still naked, lying on the floor of a cell in the Pretoria Central Prison, Biko died from brain damage.
Biko – Peter Gabriel You can blow out a candleBut you can't blow out a fireOnce the flames begin to catchThe wind will blow it higherOh Biko, Biko, because Bikooh Biko, Biko, because BikoYihla Moja, Yihla Moja-The man is deadAnd the eyes of the world arewatching nowwatching now September '77Port Elizabeth weather fineIt was business as usualIn police room 619Oh Biko, Biko, because BikoOh Biko, Biko, because BikoYihlaMoja, YihlaMoja-The man is deadWhen I try and sleep at nightI can only dream in redThe outside world is black and whiteWith only one colour deadOh Biko, Biko, because BikoOh Biko, Biko, because BikoYihlaMoja, YihlaMoja-The man is dead (Descending Spirit) Remember to Biko - ("Biko" - Peter Gabriel)
Steve Biko "We have set on a quest for true humanity, and somewhere on the distant horizon we can see the glittering prize. Let us march forth with courage and determination, drawing strength from our common plight and brotherhood. In time we shall be in a position to bestow upon South Africa the greatest gift possible - a more human face". -- Steve Biko "One People One Nation" was written on Biko’s coffin
Bishop Desmond Tutu • Spent his life speaking out against injustice and oppression. • Led a worldwide economic campaign against apartheid. He asked foreign nations not to do business with South Africa. • Many nations imposed trade restrictions on South Africa. • UN condemned the South African government on human rights violations. • Since the 1960s, South Africa was not allowed to join the Olympic games.
Bishop Desmond Tutu "My vision is of a South Africa that is totally non-racial...a new South Africa, a free South Africa, where all of us, black and white together, will walk tall; where all of us, black and white together, will hold hands as we stride forth on the Freedom March to usher in the new South Africa where people will matter because they are human beings made in the image of God." -- Desmond Tutu
F.W. De Klerk • Elected by white South Africans as the new president in 1989. • He legalized the ANC and released Nelson Mandela from prison. • Apartheid laws were repealed. • Agreed to hold elections in 1994 in which people of all races could vote.
F.W. De Klerk "Let us tackle the problem of world peace by going to the root cause for the lack of world peace. It is in many instances the tyranny of the majority. It is the alienation of important minority groups. It is suppression of specific languages and cultures. We need to come to grips with the management and accommodation of diversity in a just and equitable way."
On February 11, 1990, Nelson Mandela was released from prison! Mandela now set out with determined zeal to overthrow apartheid. In 1991 he was elected President of the ANC. In the first democratic elections in 1994, Nelson Mandela was voted state President of South Africa. He served as President until June, 1999, at which time he retired from public life. Mandela is Free!
Mandela Elected President Mandela and then-President F. W. de Klerk of South Africa won the 1993 Nobel Peace Prize. They were honored for their work to end apartheid and to enable the country's nonwhites to fully participate in the South African government.
Nelson Mandela “Out of the experience of an extraordinary human disaster that lasted too long, must be born a society of which all humanity will be proud. Our daily deeds as ordinary South Africans must produce an actual South African reality that will reinforce humanity's belief in justice, strengthen its confidence in the nobility of the human soul and sustain all our hopes for a glorious life for all. We thank all our distinguished international guests for having come to take possession with the people of our country of what is, after all, a common victory for justice, for peace, for human dignity. We trust that you will continue to stand by us as we tackle the challenges of building peace, prosperity, non-sexism, non-racialism and democracy.”