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Northern, Middle, and Southern Colonies. Economy, Religion, Society, and Government. England Colonizes in the New World. Northern Colonies. North (New England) Colonies Economy. Could not raise crops most demanded by Europeans (tobacco, sugar, rice, indigo) because of geography

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northern middle and southern colonies

Northern, Middle, and Southern Colonies

Economy, Religion, Society, and Government

north new england colonies economy
North (New England) ColoniesEconomy
  • Could not raise crops most demanded by Europeans (tobacco, sugar, rice, indigo) because of geography
  • Small farms where they raised livestock and grew wheat, rye, corn, and potatoes
  • Export lumber and fish to England
  • Boston (port): merchants did business and carried out trade between the colonies and England
north new england colonies religion
North (New England) ColoniesReligion
  • The Puritans, unhappy with the Church of England, settle new colonies in New England
  • The first Puritans to arrive in Massachusetts in 1620 and come over on the Mayflower
  • In 1630, John Winthrop brings a larger group of Puritans over and founds the Massachusetts Bay Colony called the “City on a Hill”
john winthrop 1630
John Winthrop, 1630
  • “For we must consider that we shall be as a City upon a Hill. The eyes of the people are upon us. [So’ that if we shall deal falsely with our God in this work we have undertaken, and so cause him to withdraw his present help from us, we shall be made a story and a byword throughout the world.”
north new england colonies government
North (New England) ColoniesGovernment
  • Winthrop got a charter from the King to settle the new colony
  • The gov’t was dominated by Puritans---religion and gov’t were NOT separate like they are today
  • To become a voter you had to be a member of the Puritan church (and remember, not everyone gets to be a member!)
  • Puritan men elected their governor and assembly---Massachusetts Bay was the first to do this
  • Colonies sprung up rapidly along the coast and inland—Maine, Rhode Island, Connecticut, and New Hampshire
north new england colonies society
North (New England) ColoniesSociety
  • Few African-Americans
  • Most immigrants were of middle class and came as families
  • Balance between men and women= rapid population growth
  • Granted land to men/churches
    • Establish towns and support public schools
    • Adults more literate
  • “Grammar schools” for boys and “Dame schools” for girls
    • Basics of reading/writing -> Bible
middle colonies economy
Middle ColoniesEconomy
  • Family farms were able to produce more and become more profitable because of the climate
  • Crops: corn, wheat, rye, barley
  • Philadelphia and NY are seaports that were very prosperous
middle colonies religion
Middle ColoniesReligion
  • Religion was mostly tolerated
  • New Jersey- very diverse religions
  • No single religious group dominated
    • Quakers
    • Baptists
    • Anglicans
    • Presbyterians
    • Lutherans
    • Jewish
middle colonies government
Middle ColoniesGovernment
  • William Penn: granted land by King Charles II because he saw the Quakers as dangerous radicals
  • Governs the colony of Pennsylvania
  • Advertises land, freedom, refuge for Quakers
  • “Frame of Government”
    • Guaranteed elected assembly (Representative Democracy)
    • Charter of Liberties (freedom of worship, open immigration)
    • Fair treatment of Native Americans
middle colonies society
Middle ColoniesSociety
  • Relatively few African-Americans
  • Most ethnically/culturally diverse region and tolerant of religions
  • Immigrants had better opportunities here then elsewhere
  • Education is less available so colonists taught reading/math to their own children
  • Colleges- few, small, expensive
    • College of New Jersey (Princeton)
    • Queens (Rutgers)
southern colonies economy
Southern ColoniesEconomy
  • Produce the most valuable and profitable crops
  • Cash crop: a crop grown for sale/profit (TOBACCO!!)
  • Staple crop: a crop in steady demand
  • Virginia/Maryland: staple crops like wheat and tobacco
  • North Carolina: cattle and lumber
  • South Carolina and Georgia: rice and indigo
  • Charleston, SC: largest port city
southern colonies religion
Southern ColoniesReligion
  • A pretty insignificant role
  • Southern colonies established for profit rather then religious freedom
  • Maryland: refuge for Catholics discriminated against by Protestants in England
  • S. Carolina: diverse population of the colony brought diverse religious beliefs and practices
  • Georgia: religious tolerance and freedom
southern colonies government
Southern ColoniesGovernment
  • Royal colonies: belonged to the Crown (England)
  • Proprietary colonies: belonged to powerful individuals or companies
  • Maryland: Lord Baltimore granted charter (proprietary)
  • The Carolinas: English aristocrats (Lords Proprietor)  ended up demanding Crown to take over  elected assemblies in each colony
  • Georgia: James Oglethorpe  strict rules for colonists (no drinking, owning slaves, owning plantations)
    • WHY?!?!
southern colonies society
Southern ColoniesSociety
  • Most immigrants were poor, young, single men seeking work
  • Slavery produced great profits
  • Plantations are far from one another and people are excluded from society  hard to keep churches and schools going  illiteracy is more common
  • Slavery promoted greater economic inequality