Northern, Middle, and Southern Colonies - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Northern, Middle, and Southern Colonies

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  1. Northern, Middle, and Southern Colonies Economy, Religion, Society, and Government

  2. England Colonizes in the New World

  3. Northern Colonies

  4. North (New England) ColoniesEconomy • Could not raise crops most demanded by Europeans (tobacco, sugar, rice, indigo) because of geography • Small farms where they raised livestock and grew wheat, rye, corn, and potatoes • Export lumber and fish to England • Boston (port): merchants did business and carried out trade between the colonies and England

  5. North (New England) ColoniesReligion • The Puritans, unhappy with the Church of England, settle new colonies in New England • The first Puritans to arrive in Massachusetts in 1620 and come over on the Mayflower • In 1630, John Winthrop brings a larger group of Puritans over and founds the Massachusetts Bay Colony called the “City on a Hill”

  6. John Winthrop, 1630 • “For we must consider that we shall be as a City upon a Hill. The eyes of the people are upon us. [So’ that if we shall deal falsely with our God in this work we have undertaken, and so cause him to withdraw his present help from us, we shall be made a story and a byword throughout the world.”

  7. North (New England) ColoniesGovernment • Winthrop got a charter from the King to settle the new colony • The gov’t was dominated by Puritans---religion and gov’t were NOT separate like they are today • To become a voter you had to be a member of the Puritan church (and remember, not everyone gets to be a member!) • Puritan men elected their governor and assembly---Massachusetts Bay was the first to do this • Colonies sprung up rapidly along the coast and inland—Maine, Rhode Island, Connecticut, and New Hampshire

  8. North (New England) ColoniesSociety • Few African-Americans • Most immigrants were of middle class and came as families • Balance between men and women= rapid population growth • Granted land to men/churches • Establish towns and support public schools • Adults more literate • “Grammar schools” for boys and “Dame schools” for girls • Basics of reading/writing -> Bible

  9. Middle Colonies

  10. Middle ColoniesEconomy • Family farms were able to produce more and become more profitable because of the climate • Crops: corn, wheat, rye, barley • Philadelphia and NY are seaports that were very prosperous

  11. Middle ColoniesReligion • Religion was mostly tolerated • New Jersey- very diverse religions • No single religious group dominated • Quakers • Baptists • Anglicans • Presbyterians • Lutherans • Jewish

  12. Middle ColoniesGovernment • William Penn: granted land by King Charles II because he saw the Quakers as dangerous radicals • Governs the colony of Pennsylvania • Advertises land, freedom, refuge for Quakers • “Frame of Government” • Guaranteed elected assembly (Representative Democracy) • Charter of Liberties (freedom of worship, open immigration) • Fair treatment of Native Americans

  13. Middle ColoniesSociety • Relatively few African-Americans • Most ethnically/culturally diverse region and tolerant of religions • Immigrants had better opportunities here then elsewhere • Education is less available so colonists taught reading/math to their own children • Colleges- few, small, expensive • College of New Jersey (Princeton) • Queens (Rutgers)

  14. Southern Colonies

  15. Southern ColoniesEconomy • Produce the most valuable and profitable crops • Cash crop: a crop grown for sale/profit (TOBACCO!!) • Staple crop: a crop in steady demand • Virginia/Maryland: staple crops like wheat and tobacco • North Carolina: cattle and lumber • South Carolina and Georgia: rice and indigo • Charleston, SC: largest port city

  16. Southern ColoniesReligion • A pretty insignificant role • Southern colonies established for profit rather then religious freedom • Maryland: refuge for Catholics discriminated against by Protestants in England • S. Carolina: diverse population of the colony brought diverse religious beliefs and practices • Georgia: religious tolerance and freedom

  17. Southern ColoniesGovernment • Royal colonies: belonged to the Crown (England) • Proprietary colonies: belonged to powerful individuals or companies • Maryland: Lord Baltimore granted charter (proprietary) • The Carolinas: English aristocrats (Lords Proprietor)  ended up demanding Crown to take over  elected assemblies in each colony • Georgia: James Oglethorpe  strict rules for colonists (no drinking, owning slaves, owning plantations) • WHY?!?!

  18. Southern ColoniesSociety • Most immigrants were poor, young, single men seeking work • Slavery produced great profits • Plantations are far from one another and people are excluded from society  hard to keep churches and schools going  illiteracy is more common • Slavery promoted greater economic inequality