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g1eastcoastpartnership.pbworks.com. 2.4 Middle and Southern Colonies. Angela Brown. Focus…. Learning Targets :. Vocabulary:. I Can… Explain the early history of the Dutch in New York. Describe the founding of the other Middle Colonies.

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2.4 Middle and Southern Colonies

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Learning Targets:


I Can…

  • Explain the early history of the Dutch in New York.
  • Describe the founding of the other Middle Colonies.
  • Compare the reasons for settlement of the Southern Colonies.
  • Middle Colonies, diversity, synagogue, proprietary colony, Quaker, haven, Southern Colonies, Trustee
the middle colonies
The Middle Colonies
  • Settlers came from several different countries.
  • They are in the middle of the Atlantic coast of North America.
  • They had a great variety of people.
  • These colonies included New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware.


the dutch in new york
The Dutch in New York
  • A Thriving Colony
  • In 1625, the Dutch began building a trading station called New Amsterdam at the mouth of the Hudson River.
  • They built their homes on the island of Manhattan.
  • The director of the colony, Peter Minuit, traded goods with the local NA for the right to use it.
  • They company also built Fort Orange upstream, not far from the site of Albany, the modern capital of New York State.
  • The first Europeans to settle in the area that is now NY were the Dutch.
  • They came from Holland, also called the Netherlands.
  • In 1621 Dutch investors formed the Dutch West India Company to develop trade in the Americas.
  • The company started the colony, New Netherland, in the Hudson and Delaware river valleys.
new york
New York
  • Religious tolerance was a firm rule.
  • They even had the first synagogue, or house of Jewish worship, on the NA continent.
  • Peter Stuyvesant, the governor, was often at odds with the colonies regarding their desire for self- government.
  • He refused to grant it.
  • The settlers soon built up a prosperous trade in furs and other goods with Europe.
  • The land was fruitful, the rivers navigable, and Indians brought furs to trade.
  • Farmers grew wheat and rye and more… shipping most of these products to other colonies.
  • Many diverse people carried on peaceful business at this port.
  • Some 18 different languages were spoken in its streets.
england takes over
England takes over
  • In 1664 the English King, Charles II, declared the Dutch colonies belonged to his brother, the Duke of York.
  • The Duke of York sent a fleet of four ships and several hundred soldiers to New Amsterdam.
  • The town had no fort or other defenses, and the Dutch realized they could do nothing.
  • Stuyvesant raged but in the end he was forced to give up the town.
  • New Amsterdam was renamed New York and became an English colony.
  • The rest of New Netherland surrendered to the English.


proprietary colonies
Proprietary colonies
  • New York was a proprietary colony – a colony granted by a king or queen to an individual or group who had full governing rights.
  • Proprietor means “owner”.
  • It was owned by the Duke of York.
  • He could make laws and rule as he wished.
  • The other Middle Colonies were also proprietary.


middle colonies
Middle Colonies

New Jersey


  • The Duke of York’s charter included land in what is now Maine, NY, NJ, and Delaware.
  • He signed some over to two English noblemen.
  • It was divided into East Jersey and West Jersey.
  • East Jersey was closely linked to NY.
  • West Jersey developed close ties to Pennsylvania.
  • In 1702, they became the single royal colony of New Jersey.
  • In 1638, settlers from Sweden started the first permanent colony in what is now Delaware.
  • They built Fort Christina on the site of modern-day Wilmington.
  • The Dutch under Peter Stuyesant captured this trading village.
  • The Duke of York captured it from the Dutch.
  • In 1682 he turned it over to the Englishman, William Penn, who allowed it to become a separate colony in 1704.
  • Delaware was not Penn’s only colony.
  • He had received a huge land grant from King Charles II of England in 1681.
  • He called it Pennsylvania, which means “Penn’s woods”.
  • Like the Puritans, he saw his colony as a “Holy Experiment.”
  • Unlike the Puritans, he wanted his colonists to practice religious tolerance.
  • He made agreements with NA for land use and then brought over the first settlers from England.
  • These settlers were Quakers, members of a Protestant group that had suffered persecution in England.
  • Quakers believed firmly that all people should be treated as equals, not only in church but in society and government.
  • Pennsylvania became a haven, or safe place, for people of every faith.
  • Quakers from other colonies, Wales, Germany and other countries came to Pennsylvania.
  • Non-Quakers were also invited.
  • Protestant groups such as the German Lutherans, Scotch-Irish, Presbyterians, and Swiss Mennonites built large settlements.
  • So many Germans settled in the colony that they became known as the Pennsylvania Dutch, after the German word Deutsch, which means “German.”


the southern colonies
The Southern Colonies
  • Virginia was the first-settled of the Southern Colonies.
  • The others were Maryland, the Carolinas, and Georgia.
  • All of these settlements began as proprietary colonies.
  • Maryland
  • Maryland started as the idea of George Calvert, an English lord who had become a Roman Catholic after growing up in the Anglican Church.
  • He saw Roman Catholics being persecuted in England, and wanted to establish a safe place for them to live.
  • He had also been a member of the Virginia company, and was convinced a well-run colonies could be profitable.
  • In the early 1630s Calvert asked the king for a charter to establish a colony in the Chesapeake Bay area.
  • The king approved his plan, but Calvert died before the charter could be written up.
  • Thus it was issued in the mane of his son, Lord Baltimore.
  • In 1634 the first settlers arrived.
  • Though a haven for Catholics, Puritans also moved into the colony and outnumbered the Catholics.
  • Lord Baltimore ordered the adoption of a law that would protect Catholics from persecution called the Maryland Toleration Act.
  • It did not provided protection for non-Christians.
  • Puritans in Maryland’s assembly amended the law to state that non-Christians would be put to death.


maryland planters
Maryland Planters
  • Planters in the 1600s grew prosperous by growing tobacco.
  • They began to use enslaved Africans to work their fields like Virginia.
  • By 1704, 15,000 of the 90,000 in the two colonies were slaves.
  • A Virginia law passed in 1642 penalized people for sheltering runaway slaves or indentured servants.
  • A 1664 Maryland law specified that all black people imported to the colony were to be given the status of slaves.


the carolinas
The Carolinas
  • King Charles II granted ownership to a group of English noblemen in 1663 despite earlier claims.
  • It was split into North and South in 1691 when two different governors were appointed.
  • In 1721, SC became a royal colony.
  • NC became a royal colony in 1729
  • Both colonies thrived on trade with Native Americans and tobacco profits.


  • Georgia was set up like a proprietary colony in 1732, but was managed by trustees.
  • A trustee is someone entrusted to look after a business.
  • The trustees, led by James Oglethorpe, wanted to create a haven for English people jailed for failure to pay their debts.
  • The also had the duty of protecting the Southern Colonies against attack from Spanish raiders based in Florida.
  • Georgia was ruled strictly with no slavery, liquor or Catholics.
  • All types of Protestants were permitted.
  • The settlers lived in peace with the NA due to Oglethorpe’s negotiations.
  • The colonists forced the trustees to change the rules for liquor and slaves.
  • In 1752 the trustees gave their charter back to the King, and Georgia became a royal colony.
exit slip
Exit slip:
  • 3. Analyzing Time Lines: When and why was the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam renamed New York?
  • 4. Predicting Consequences: Proprietors were able to make their own laws in the colonies. What do you think might be the consequences of this fact?
  • 1. Summarizing the main idea: List some of the reasons people settled in the Middle and Southern Colonies of North America.
  • 2. Organizing Information: Create a chart showing the degree of religious tolerance in New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Georgia.