g1eastcoastpartnership.pbworks.com 2.4 Middle and Southern Colonies Angela Brown
Focus…. Learning Targets: Vocabulary: I Can… • Explain the early history of the Dutch in New York. • Describe the founding of the other Middle Colonies. • Compare the reasons for settlement of the Southern Colonies. • Middle Colonies, diversity, synagogue, proprietary colony, Quaker, haven, Southern Colonies, Trustee
The Middle Colonies • Settlers came from several different countries. • They are in the middle of the Atlantic coast of North America. • They had a great variety of people. • These colonies included New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware. k12handhelds.com
The Dutch in New York • A Thriving Colony • In 1625, the Dutch began building a trading station called New Amsterdam at the mouth of the Hudson River. • They built their homes on the island of Manhattan. • The director of the colony, Peter Minuit, traded goods with the local NA for the right to use it. • They company also built Fort Orange upstream, not far from the site of Albany, the modern capital of New York State. • The first Europeans to settle in the area that is now NY were the Dutch. • They came from Holland, also called the Netherlands. • In 1621 Dutch investors formed the Dutch West India Company to develop trade in the Americas. • The company started the colony, New Netherland, in the Hudson and Delaware river valleys.
New York • Religious tolerance was a firm rule. • They even had the first synagogue, or house of Jewish worship, on the NA continent. • Peter Stuyvesant, the governor, was often at odds with the colonies regarding their desire for self- government. • He refused to grant it. • The settlers soon built up a prosperous trade in furs and other goods with Europe. • The land was fruitful, the rivers navigable, and Indians brought furs to trade. • Farmers grew wheat and rye and more… shipping most of these products to other colonies. • Many diverse people carried on peaceful business at this port. • Some 18 different languages were spoken in its streets.
England takes over • In 1664 the English King, Charles II, declared the Dutch colonies belonged to his brother, the Duke of York. • The Duke of York sent a fleet of four ships and several hundred soldiers to New Amsterdam. • The town had no fort or other defenses, and the Dutch realized they could do nothing. • Stuyvesant raged but in the end he was forced to give up the town. • New Amsterdam was renamed New York and became an English colony. • The rest of New Netherland surrendered to the English. paladium.net
Proprietary colonies • New York was a proprietary colony – a colony granted by a king or queen to an individual or group who had full governing rights. • Proprietor means “owner”. • It was owned by the Duke of York. • He could make laws and rule as he wished. • The other Middle Colonies were also proprietary. ushistory.org
Middle Colonies New Jersey Delaware • The Duke of York’s charter included land in what is now Maine, NY, NJ, and Delaware. • He signed some over to two English noblemen. • It was divided into East Jersey and West Jersey. • East Jersey was closely linked to NY. • West Jersey developed close ties to Pennsylvania. • In 1702, they became the single royal colony of New Jersey. • In 1638, settlers from Sweden started the first permanent colony in what is now Delaware. • They built Fort Christina on the site of modern-day Wilmington. • The Dutch under Peter Stuyesant captured this trading village. • The Duke of York captured it from the Dutch. • In 1682 he turned it over to the Englishman, William Penn, who allowed it to become a separate colony in 1704.
Pennsylvania • Delaware was not Penn’s only colony. • He had received a huge land grant from King Charles II of England in 1681. • He called it Pennsylvania, which means “Penn’s woods”. • Like the Puritans, he saw his colony as a “Holy Experiment.” • Unlike the Puritans, he wanted his colonists to practice religious tolerance. • He made agreements with NA for land use and then brought over the first settlers from England. • These settlers were Quakers, members of a Protestant group that had suffered persecution in England. • Quakers believed firmly that all people should be treated as equals, not only in church but in society and government. • Pennsylvania became a haven, or safe place, for people of every faith.
Quakers • Quakers from other colonies, Wales, Germany and other countries came to Pennsylvania. • Non-Quakers were also invited. • Protestant groups such as the German Lutherans, Scotch-Irish, Presbyterians, and Swiss Mennonites built large settlements. • So many Germans settled in the colony that they became known as the Pennsylvania Dutch, after the German word Deutsch, which means “German.” civilwardailygazette.com
The Southern Colonies • Virginia was the first-settled of the Southern Colonies. • The others were Maryland, the Carolinas, and Georgia. • All of these settlements began as proprietary colonies. • Maryland • Maryland started as the idea of George Calvert, an English lord who had become a Roman Catholic after growing up in the Anglican Church. • He saw Roman Catholics being persecuted in England, and wanted to establish a safe place for them to live. • He had also been a member of the Virginia company, and was convinced a well-run colonies could be profitable. • In the early 1630s Calvert asked the king for a charter to establish a colony in the Chesapeake Bay area. • The king approved his plan, but Calvert died before the charter could be written up. • Thus it was issued in the mane of his son, Lord Baltimore.
Maryland • In 1634 the first settlers arrived. • Though a haven for Catholics, Puritans also moved into the colony and outnumbered the Catholics. • Lord Baltimore ordered the adoption of a law that would protect Catholics from persecution called the Maryland Toleration Act. • It did not provided protection for non-Christians. • Puritans in Maryland’s assembly amended the law to state that non-Christians would be put to death. enchantedlearning.com
Maryland Planters • Planters in the 1600s grew prosperous by growing tobacco. • They began to use enslaved Africans to work their fields like Virginia. • By 1704, 15,000 of the 90,000 in the two colonies were slaves. • A Virginia law passed in 1642 penalized people for sheltering runaway slaves or indentured servants. • A 1664 Maryland law specified that all black people imported to the colony were to be given the status of slaves. scientificamerican.com
The Carolinas • King Charles II granted ownership to a group of English noblemen in 1663 despite earlier claims. • It was split into North and South in 1691 when two different governors were appointed. • In 1721, SC became a royal colony. • NC became a royal colony in 1729 • Both colonies thrived on trade with Native Americans and tobacco profits. costonscomplaint.blogspot.com
Georgia • Georgia was set up like a proprietary colony in 1732, but was managed by trustees. • A trustee is someone entrusted to look after a business. • The trustees, led by James Oglethorpe, wanted to create a haven for English people jailed for failure to pay their debts. • The also had the duty of protecting the Southern Colonies against attack from Spanish raiders based in Florida. • Georgia was ruled strictly with no slavery, liquor or Catholics. • All types of Protestants were permitted. • The settlers lived in peace with the NA due to Oglethorpe’s negotiations. • The colonists forced the trustees to change the rules for liquor and slaves. • In 1752 the trustees gave their charter back to the King, and Georgia became a royal colony.
Exit slip: • 3. Analyzing Time Lines: When and why was the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam renamed New York? • 4. Predicting Consequences: Proprietors were able to make their own laws in the colonies. What do you think might be the consequences of this fact? • 1. Summarizing the main idea: List some of the reasons people settled in the Middle and Southern Colonies of North America. • 2. Organizing Information: Create a chart showing the degree of religious tolerance in New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Georgia.