Middle and Southern Colonies Section 2.4
Main Idea • Events in England during and after the English Civil War led to a new wave of colonization along the Atlantic coast south of New England.
New Era of Colonization • England was gripped by a civil war during the 1640s. • The era afterward became known as the Restoration. • During this time new colonies were created in NA. • The king granted large areas of land to those who had supported him. • These became proprietary colonies; the person granted the land had executive power over them.
New York • NY was originally colonized by the Dutch (named New Amsterdam). • In 1664 the English took over and renamed it. • NY was similar to RI in that it allowed for religious toleration. • The great port and central location would help NY become a huge city with time.
Carolina • Originally one colony, but the north and south differed. • In southern Carolina, a great port and warm weather allowed Charleston to become a great city. • Riceand indigo production lead to lots of plantation, and slaves. • Northern Carolina developed slowly, small farmers settled. • Eventually the two sections separated in 1729.
Georgia • This area was originally a buffer between Carolina and Spanish Florida. • James Oglethorpe received royal permission to settle Georgia with debtors (those that owed money) from English prisons.
Quakers • Another group of Protestants wished to start anew in NA. • Quakers believe in direct communication with God, they held simple meetings with no priests, rather a member of the congregation would stand and speak for a time. • Quakers also believed in equality of all men and women (no slavery, nice to AI) and were pacifists. • William Penn founded Pennsylvania as a religious refuge for Quakers and other Christian groups.
Maryland • Founded by Lord Baltimore as a refuge for Catholics. • Over time more Protestants migrated to Maryland. • Conflict over religion lead to the Toleration Act, which protected the rights of all Christians in Maryland.