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Chapter 28: The Civil Rights Movement. American Communities. Rosa Parks & the Montgomery, Alabama Bus Boycott. American Communities: Taking a stand. Emphasis on peaceful boycott MLK’s influenced by: Jesus, Gandhi Boycott lasted > one year Long term effects to bus company?.

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Chapter 28: The Civil Rights Movement

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    1. Chapter 28:The Civil Rights Movement American Communities

    2. Rosa Parks & theMontgomery, Alabama Bus Boycott American Communities: Taking a stand

    3. Emphasis on peaceful boycott MLK’s influenced by: Jesus, Gandhi Boycott lasted > one year Long term effects to bus company? 1. Walking for Justice

    4. a. Rosa Parks (1955) i. E.D. Nixon – Pres. of NAACP ii. MLK – leads boycott b. NAACP i. Goal: To fight and end segregation through the court systems ii. Lead Attorney: Thurgood Marshall iii. First AA Supreme Court Justice; (retired 1991; died 1993) 2. “The Players”

    5. 28.1: Origins of the Movement 1945-1957

    6. A. Civil Rights during/after WWII • Mass migration from southern Blacks • Moved to Dem. Party

    7. 1. Pres. Committee on Civil Rights (1946) Investigate CR status in country Make recommendations: CR Div. permanent in JD, voting, antilynching, housing segregation 2. Ends segregation in the armed forces (1948) 3. CR Democratic platform Election of 1948 B. Truman Acts

    8. Began with CORE organization one of the earliest org. geared at nonviolent protest; est. sit-in concept 2. Goal of freedom rides? enforce desegregation laws on interstate bus routes and terminals; Morgan v. Virginia (1946) James Farmer C. Freedom Rides

    9. Bus #2

    10. KKK at terminal Birmingham, Alabama & Bull Connor

    11. D. Jackie Robinson

    12. 1. Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) “separate but equal” Jim Crow laws Poll taxes, literacy tests, grandfather clause 2. de facto segregation/de jure segregation E. Segregated South

    13. 1. Supreme Court rules? Overturned “separate but equal” doctrine “separate is inherently unequal” “with all deliberate speed?” 2. Southern Manifesto (1956) F. Brown v. B.O.E. (5/’54)[Docs C&D]

    14. Governor Faubus refused the “Little Rock Nine” to enter school; campaign platform Orders Ark Nat’l Guard to stop students from entering Eisenhower placed Guard under federal control/role of gov’t? Hypocrites? G. Crisis in Little Rock (1957)

    15. 28.2:No Easy Road to Freedom 1957-1962

    16. Civil disobedience A. MLK & SCLC

    17. B.

    18. 1. Members usually young college students; nonviolence 2. Wanted only Blacks to fight “for the cause” (Kling) “Black Power!” PES independence discord amongst the AA community Stokely Carmichael 1966 C. Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee

    19. Supporter of the CRM AG RFK help get MLK out of jail after demonstration AA help JFK get elected Slow to respond once in office – need Southern Democrats to help pass bills ICC to desegregated interstate buses and terminals! Uses CR division of the JD D. Kennedy and Civil Rights

    20. 7. James Meredith & Ole Miss (10/’62)

    21. 28.3:The Movement at High Tide 1963-1965

    22. Need to get JFK to respond MLK – “most segregated city in the U.S.” EBC – a. Safety commissioner/mayor candidate b. Responds with harsh force c. Televised 4. Ends with desegregation Eugene “Bull” Connor A. Violence in Birmingham, Ala. (1963)

    23. Birmingham, Al. May 1963

    24. 5. Children’s Crusade

    25. “I guess it is easy for those who have never felt the stinging darts of segregation to say, “Wait.” But when you have seen hate-filled policemen curse, kick, brutalize and even kill your black brothers and sisters; … when you see the vast majority of your twenty million Negro brothers smothering in the air-tight cage of poverty;…when you have to concoct an answer for a five-year-old son asking:…”Daddy, why do white people treat colored people so mean?”…then you will understand why we find it difficult to wait.” April 16, 1963 Birmingham, AlLetter from MLK

    26. 16th St. bombing: Birmingham, Ala. (9/’63)

    27. 1977 Guilty at 73