The Coming of the War 1931-1942 World War II
Dictators at War Democracy totalitarianism Totalitarian governments is a theory of government in which a single party or leader controls the economic, social, and cultural lives of its people. The Soviet Union and Italy were two countries that adopted repressive governments. • During the 1920’s many nations moved toward freedom and democracy. • Some nations took a different direction and moved toward repressive dictatorships and totalitarianism governments.
Repression in the Soviet Union and Italy USSR STALIN Continued The “State ran industrial power” led to 10 million deaths of his own people. Stalin used fear, propaganda and terror to control his people It is believed that he used the Red Army to imprison and kill up to 10 million additional people. • In 1924, Lenin died and Joseph Stalin took over as the leader in USSR. • Stalin means “Man of Steel” in Russia • Cruel and Ruthless • He wanted to transform the USSR into an “industrial power” and “state run collective farms.”
Italy and Dictatorship Mussolini in Italy Mussolini Continued Mussolini took control over the government and the army within a few years. He outlawed political parties. He took over the press. He created the secret police. He organized youth groups that he could use to indoctrinate the young. • Benito Mussolini formed the Fascist Party which was a right winged organization that trumped nationalism and promised to make Italy great again. • The followers of Mussolini were known as the Black Shirts.
DICTATORSHIPS totalitarianism Characteristics of Totalitarianism Single party dictatorship controls every aspect of life Strong, charismatic leader State ran economy Use of police and spies to enforce terror Government control of the media Use of schools and youth to spread ideology Strict censorship of artist • A theory of government in which a party or leader controls the economic, social and cultural lives of people.
Aggressive leaders in Germany and Japan Germany Hitler Hitler criticized the ideologies but his sharpest assaults were against the communist and the Jews. He spread pseudo-scientific theories of a master race that targeted the Jews for future violence. Hitler was the symbol of a totalitaranian regime. • Germany was weakened by the worldwide effects of the Great Depression. • Adolf Hitler started the Nazi Party. He wrote a book called Mein Kampfwhich means “ My Struggles.” In his book he stated the reasons he felt that Germany had problems.
Aggressive Leaders in Germany Hitler Hitler in late 1930’s He violates the Versailles Treaty that ended World War I and starts rearmament or rebuilding the military. His economic policies and public works projects ended the Great Depression in Germany. • He used the secret police to crush all opposition. • He ran a state controlled press-propaganda. • The state controlled press praised/worshipped Hitler’s accomplishments. • He had a state controlled educational system to indoctrinate the youth.
Militarist in Japan Japan Japan Japan allowed diverse political parties to develop. Japan did not become a totalitarianism state. Japan continued as a constitutional monarchy. • During the 1920’s Japan increased the freedoms and democracy. The Japanese government reduced the size of the military. • Japan passed laws giving all men the right to vote. • Japan legalized trade unions.
JAPAN Japan expands empire Weaknesses of League of Nations America refused to join. League had no standing army and no real power. Aggressive nations challenged the League and it was short on action. • Japans power shifted and turn toward military control. • Japan started a period of military expansion. • Japan moved to control Chinese railroads. • Japanese were violent killing over 200,000 and burning city “Rape of Nanking.”
Hitler and Mussolini threaten peace HITLER Mussolini 1935 Mussolini lead Italy to invade Ethiopia, an independent country in east Africa. Emperor HaileSelessie appealed to the League and they did almost nothing. Ethiopia fell to Italy. 1936-1939 Spain was in a civil war. Both Hitler and Mussolini sent aid to the nationalist. The USSR sent aid to the republican side. • Hitler violated the Treaty of Versailles and increased the size of the army and navy. He spoke to the German people about needing “living space.” • In 1935 he reclaimed the Saar a region the French controlled. The League did nothing.
Aggression goes unchecked Appeasement Policy Hitler & Aggression Hitler takes Sudetenland. Britain and France appease Germany. Appeasement under Munich Pact only postponed the war 11 months. Munich Pact Hitler would take part of Czechoslovakia but not all of it. He was ended his aggression. This was not an effective pact. • Why did Britain allow appeasement? • WWI had been horrific. • Many countries, including USA and FDR, did not take hard stance against German aggression.
FROM ISOLATION TO INVOLVMENT ROOSEVELT OPPOSES AGGRESSION • The Rape of Nanking and the killing of 3 navy sailerPanay Incident…ships sunk. • FDR made a statement on Japan “reign of terror and u