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EARLY RADIO. O utgrowth of 'wireless' Marconi and Fessenden Station XWA in Montreal (later CFCF) became first radio station in Canada (1918) CKAC in Montreal, first french-language station (1922) Proto-broadcasting. Radio Days.

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Early radio
EARLY RADIO

  • Outgrowth of 'wireless'

  • Marconi and FessendenStation XWA in Montreal (later CFCF) became first radio station in Canada (1918)

  • CKAC in Montreal, first french-language station (1922)

  • Proto-broadcasting


Radio days
Radio Days

  • Titanic in 1912 showcased importance of radio as a transmissions device

  • 1920's spread quickly

  • But, early radio content borrowed from earlier media (phonograph)

  • Could radio signals=life on other planets???


Radio news
Radio News

  • During the Depression radio news was trusted while newspaper news wasn't.

  • --on the spot news

  • --bulletins

  • --commentary

  • Which politicians were radio men?


Golden age of radio
Golden Age of Radio

  • 1935-40's

  • music: pre-recorded; symphony orchestras, Big Bands (live & recorded)

  • drama: soap operas, serials, ‘prestige’ dramas

  • political: use in campaigns


Canadian radio
Canadian Radio

  • Federal Involvement: 1905-32

  • commercial device

  • 1913 Radiotelegraph Act

  • July 1928 Diamond Jubilee (50th anniversary) highlighted


Canadianizing airwaves
Canadianizing Airwaves

  • 80% of Canadians spent time listening to American radio

  • 1929 Royal Commission on Radio Broadcasting (Aird Commission)

  • urban concentration of Canadian radios

  • commercialization

  • mediocrity


Aird report
Aird Report

  • Federal government should take over private radio

  • Public broadcasting system would be nationalistic-Canadian programs for and by Canadians

  • Led by Canadian Radio League and Graham Spry: "the state or the United States"


1932 canadian radio broadcasting act
1932 Canadian Radio Broadcasting Act

  • Created the Canadian Radio Broadcasting Commission (CRBC)

  • PUBLIC ownership of radio


1936 broadcasting act
1936 Broadcasting Act-

  • CRBC replaced by CBC

  • Mandate to establish national broadcasting service

  • Licences issued to private broadcasters

  • Mixed public and private ownership


1957 royal commission on broadcasting
1957 Royal Commission on Broadcasting

  • Also known as Fowler Commission

  • Recommended integration of private with public


Broadcasting act of 1958
Broadcasting Act of 1958

  • Put private & public sector on equal footing

  • Tension between regulatory role of CBC and main player in radio

  • Board of Broadcast Governors (BBG) initiated - role to regulate CBC and private broadcasters

  • Later BBG=CRTC (1968)


CRTC…

  • Independent public agency

  • Reports to Parliament through Canadian Heritage

  • Governed by Broadcasting Act of 1991 and Telecommunications Act of 1993

  • Awards and renews broadcast license

  • Sets standards and quotos for broadcasting industry


CRTC…

Tries to act on behalf of the public interest

Tries to ensure that broadcasting meets needsof all Canadians - multicultural, bilingual etc.

  • Controversial


Cancon private broadcasters
CANCON – private broadcasters

  • At least 35% of pop music selections played by commercial AM and FM stations each broadcast week must be Canadian

  • Minimum of 35% of airplay must be between 6am-6pm M-F and be Canadian


Cbc cancon
CBC Cancon

  • Minimum of 50% of general music and 20% of traditional and special interest selections during broadcast day (6am-midnight) must be Canadian

  • More rigorous for french-language radio


Mapl must meet at least 2
MAPL-must meet at least 2:

  • M - music composed entirely by a Canadian

  • A - artists or lyrics must be performed principally by a Canadian

  • P - production - live performance that is a) recorded entirely in Canada, or b) performed entirely in Canada and broadcast live in Canada

  • L - lyrics written entirely by a Canadian


What s a canadian musical artist
What’s a Canadian Musical Artist?

  • CAN CANADIAN MUSICIANS "MAKE IT" in CANADA, OR DO THEY NEED THE GLOBAL MARKET?

  • WHO ARE THE GATEKEEPERS OF THE MUSIC INDUSTRY?

  • DO AWARD SHOWS LIKE THE GRAMMY & JUNO PROMOTE EXCELLENCE?

  • DO THEY PROMOTE WHAT IS BEST & DISTINCT IN ONE YEAR?


Has canadian radio been successful in nurturing canadian culture
Has Canadian radio been successful in nurturing Canadian culture?

  • CanCon rules

  • CBC support waning

  • Howard Stern ‘Problem’


Community radio
Community Radio culture?

  • rural...cooperative...

  • participatory...free...

  • alternative...popular... educational

  • rural to urban

  • musical to militant

  • signals from 1 km. >country>shortwave


Trends in radio
Trends in Radio culture?

  • Digital Audio broadcasting

  • Pirate radio


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