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EARLY RADIO PowerPoint Presentation
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EARLY RADIO

EARLY RADIO

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EARLY RADIO

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Presentation Transcript

  1. EARLY RADIO • Outgrowth of 'wireless' • Marconi and FessendenStation XWA in Montreal (later CFCF) became first radio station in Canada (1918) • CKAC in Montreal, first french-language station (1922) • Proto-broadcasting

  2. Radio Days • Titanic in 1912 showcased importance of radio as a transmissions device • 1920's spread quickly • But, early radio content borrowed from earlier media (phonograph) • Could radio signals=life on other planets???

  3. Radio News • During the Depression radio news was trusted while newspaper news wasn't. • --on the spot news • --bulletins • --commentary • Which politicians were radio men?

  4. Golden Age of Radio • 1935-40's • music: pre-recorded; symphony orchestras, Big Bands (live & recorded) • drama: soap operas, serials, ‘prestige’ dramas • political: use in campaigns

  5. Canadian Radio • Federal Involvement: 1905-32 • commercial device • 1913 Radiotelegraph Act • July 1928 Diamond Jubilee (50th anniversary) highlighted

  6. Canadianizing Airwaves • 80% of Canadians spent time listening to American radio • 1929 Royal Commission on Radio Broadcasting (Aird Commission) • urban concentration of Canadian radios • commercialization • mediocrity

  7. Aird Report • Federal government should take over private radio • Public broadcasting system would be nationalistic-Canadian programs for and by Canadians • Led by Canadian Radio League and Graham Spry: "the state or the United States"

  8. 1932 Canadian Radio Broadcasting Act • Created the Canadian Radio Broadcasting Commission (CRBC) • PUBLIC ownership of radio

  9. 1936 Broadcasting Act- • CRBC replaced by CBC • Mandate to establish national broadcasting service • Licences issued to private broadcasters • Mixed public and private ownership

  10. 1957 Royal Commission on Broadcasting • Also known as Fowler Commission • Recommended integration of private with public

  11. Broadcasting Act of 1958 • Put private & public sector on equal footing • Tension between regulatory role of CBC and main player in radio • Board of Broadcast Governors (BBG) initiated - role to regulate CBC and private broadcasters • Later BBG=CRTC (1968)

  12. CRTC… • Independent public agency • Reports to Parliament through Canadian Heritage • Governed by Broadcasting Act of 1991 and Telecommunications Act of 1993 • Awards and renews broadcast license • Sets standards and quotos for broadcasting industry

  13. CRTC… Tries to act on behalf of the public interest Tries to ensure that broadcasting meets needsof all Canadians - multicultural, bilingual etc. • Controversial

  14. CANCON – private broadcasters • At least 35% of pop music selections played by commercial AM and FM stations each broadcast week must be Canadian • Minimum of 35% of airplay must be between 6am-6pm M-F and be Canadian

  15. CBC Cancon • Minimum of 50% of general music and 20% of traditional and special interest selections during broadcast day (6am-midnight) must be Canadian • More rigorous for french-language radio

  16. MAPL-must meet at least 2: • M - music composed entirely by a Canadian • A - artists or lyrics must be performed principally by a Canadian • P - production - live performance that is a) recorded entirely in Canada, or b) performed entirely in Canada and broadcast live in Canada • L - lyrics written entirely by a Canadian

  17. What’s a Canadian Musical Artist? • CAN CANADIAN MUSICIANS "MAKE IT" in CANADA, OR DO THEY NEED THE GLOBAL MARKET? • WHO ARE THE GATEKEEPERS OF THE MUSIC INDUSTRY? • DO AWARD SHOWS LIKE THE GRAMMY & JUNO PROMOTE EXCELLENCE? • DO THEY PROMOTE WHAT IS BEST & DISTINCT IN ONE YEAR?

  18. Has Canadian radio been successful in nurturing Canadian culture? • CanCon rules • CBC support waning • Howard Stern ‘Problem’

  19. Community Radio • rural...cooperative... • participatory...free... • alternative...popular... educational • rural to urban • musical to militant • signals from 1 km. >country>shortwave

  20. Trends in Radio • Digital Audio broadcasting • Pirate radio