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Radio. *Warning* Heavy Science Content Ahead. Baghdad battery – 250 BCE. Electricity was a heavy duty toy for decades, including Ben Franklin and his kite, people rubbing cat skins on glass or amber rods, spinning sulfur balls, and sparking everything and everyone in sight.

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Warning heavy science content ahead

*Warning*Heavy Science Content Ahead



Radio


Luigi galvani 1786
Luigi Galvani - 1786 Franklin and his kite, people rubbing cat skins on glass or amber rods, spinning sulfur balls, and sparking everything and everyone in sight

  • Believed everything contained electricity

  • Looked for “animal magnetism”

  • Touched different metals to frogs’ legs which twitched


Alessandro volta 1796
Alessandro Volta - 1796 Franklin and his kite, people rubbing cat skins on glass or amber rods, spinning sulfur balls, and sparking everything and everyone in sight


Alessandro volta 17961
Alessandro Volta - 1796 Franklin and his kite, people rubbing cat skins on glass or amber rods, spinning sulfur balls, and sparking everything and everyone in sight

  • Volta took Galvani’s experiment and showed that it was the current produced by the different metals that caused the twitch

  • Built a pile of alternating sandwiches of zinc and copper in an acid and created electicity


Hans christian oersted 1820
Hans Christian Oersted - 1820 Franklin and his kite, people rubbing cat skins on glass or amber rods, spinning sulfur balls, and sparking everything and everyone in sight


Oersted s experiment 1820
Oersted’s experiment - 1820 Franklin and his kite, people rubbing cat skins on glass or amber rods, spinning sulfur balls, and sparking everything and everyone in sight

  • In a lecture in Copenhagen he performed an experiment to demonstrate there was no connection between electricity and magnetism by showing that an electric current passing through a wire wouldn’t affect a nearby compass needle


Radio


William sturgeon 1825
William Sturgeon - 1825 turned on the current

  • Created the first electromagnet by wrapping wire around a soft iron bar and sending a current through the wire

  • Electricity can create magnetism


Michael faraday 1826
Michael Faraday - 1826 turned on the current

  • Reversed Sturgeon’s experiment

  • Showed that magnetism could create an electric current


Samuel f b morse 1838
Samuel F. B. Morse - 1838 turned on the current


Radio


Johannes mueller 1840
Johannes Mueller - 1840 electric current on and off, sending pulses of current through a wire to an electromagnet that would click in time to the pulses


Radio

  • Examined physical sensations electric current on and off, sending pulses of current through a wire to an electromagnet that would click in time to the pulses

    • Can you feel colors

    • Can you hear shapes

    • Can you smell sounds

  • Discovered that each sense detects different things

  • We think this is obvious, but no one had proven it before. Remember “common sense”?


Herman hemholtz 1857
Herman Hemholtz - 1857 electric current on and off, sending pulses of current through a wire to an electromagnet that would click in time to the pulses


Radio

  • Meuller’s pupil electric current on and off, sending pulses of current through a wire to an electromagnet that would click in time to the pulses

  • Investigated hearing

  • Noticed sound produced vibrations


Radio

  • Did the vibrations operate at different frequencies? electric current on and off, sending pulses of current through a wire to an electromagnet that would click in time to the pulses

    • They did

    • Thus, sound traveled at different frequencies

  • Used an electromagnet to attract the arms of a tuning fork, causing it to vibrate and produce sound


Leon scott de martinville phonautograph 1857
Leon Scott de Martinville - phonautograph - 1857 electric current on and off, sending pulses of current through a wire to an electromagnet that would click in time to the pulses

  • Attached a bristle to a membrane at the end of a cone, set the bristle to touch a piece of smoked glass

  • Spoke into the cone

  • membrane vibrated to the sound and the bristle etched a wavy line onto the smoked glass


The telephone 1876
The Telephone - 1876 electric current on and off, sending pulses of current through a wire to an electromagnet that would click in time to the pulses

  • Scott’s membrane, Faraday’s electromagnet, Oersted’s and Sturgeon’s electromagnet, Morse’s wire and electrical current, Heimholtz’s vibration, Scott’s membrane


Bell and gray
Bell and Gray electric current on and off, sending pulses of current through a wire to an electromagnet that would click in time to the pulses


Samuel morse
Samuel Morse electric current on and off, sending pulses of current through a wire to an electromagnet that would click in time to the pulses


Heinrich hertz 1886
Heinrich Hertz - 1886 electric current on and off, sending pulses of current through a wire to an electromagnet that would click in time to the pulses


Radio

  • Hemholtz’s pupil electric current on and off, sending pulses of current through a wire to an electromagnet that would click in time to the pulses

  • Investigated whether electricity traveled in frequencies the way sound did


Spark gap generator
Spark gap generator electric current on and off, sending pulses of current through a wire to an electromagnet that would click in time to the pulses


Hertz spark gap experiment
Hertz’ spark gap experiment electric current on and off, sending pulses of current through a wire to an electromagnet that would click in time to the pulses


Radio
Demonstrated that electricity traveled through air at specific frequencies, just like it did through wires


Guglielmo marconi 1894
Guglielmo Marconi - 1894 specific frequencies, just like it did through wires


Marconi radio
Marconi radio specific frequencies, just like it did through wires


Morse key
Morse key specific frequencies, just like it did through wires


Marconi and his radio
Marconi and his radio specific frequencies, just like it did through wires


Nikola tesla
Nikola Tesla specific frequencies, just like it did through wires


Tesla coil 1891
Tesla coil - 1891 specific frequencies, just like it did through wires

  • Developed the first amplifier coil, the Tesla coil

  • Raised the voltage of an electrical current high enough to allow the air to conduct the current

  • Key to wireless transmission of radio waves


Reginald fessenden
Reginald Fessenden specific frequencies, just like it did through wires


Radio


Ernst alexanderson
Ernst Alexanderson voice, just like on a telephone, could be carried by electrical wave of a radio signal


Radio

  • Developed the Alexanderson Alternator, a machine capable of generating the power, up to 100,000 hertz, that Fessenden needed to piggyback voice onto radio waves

  • In Dec. 1906, Fessenden did the first good voice and music broadcast, going hundreds of miles

    • Poetry and a Bible reading

    • A woman singing opera

    • A violin playing a Christmas carol


Lee de forest
Lee de Forest generating the power, up to 100,000 hertz, that Fessenden needed to piggyback voice onto radio waves


Radio


De forest s audion tube 1904
De Forest’s audion tube - 1904 for tube) invented in England


Radio


Edwin howard armstrong
Edwin Howard Armstrong Alexanderson generator increased the electrical power


Radio

  • Investigated the audion tube, figured out how it worked, and improved it

  • Developed “regeneration”

    • The signal was fed back into the tube over and over again, up to 20,000 times a second

    • Vastly increased the power of the tube to output the signal – it was an amplifier

    • Raise the level enough and the tube becomes a transmitter

    • Armstrong invented the ability to broadcast sound


Radio


Armstrong s superheterodyne
Armstrong’s superheterodyne then fed them back into the system to amplify the signal and increase its sensitivity

  • Armstrong’s next invention was the superheterodyne


Crystal radio
Crystal Radio then fed them back into the system to amplify the signal and increase its sensitivity


David sarnoff
David Sarnoff then fed them back into the system to amplify the signal and increase its sensitivity


Radio

  • Enamored of radio then fed them back into the system to amplify the signal and increase its sensitivity

  • Saw the possibilities

  • Wrote the “Radio Music Box Memo” that outlined the commercial possibilities of radio


Rca radio corporation of america
RCA (Radio Corporation of America) then fed them back into the system to amplify the signal and increase its sensitivity

  • After World War I

  • Four companies merged their patents to create RCA

    • American Marconi

    • General Electric

    • American Telephone & Telegraph

    • Westinghouse

  • Sarnoff named as commercial manager


Radio


Radio stations soon opened all over the u s

Radio stations soon opened all over the U.S. radios to build RCA, the Radio Corporation of America, into one of the biggest companies in the world

Including KWSC (now KWSU) in 1922, one of the first radio stations in the country


Https skylight wsu edu student

https://skylight.wsu.edu/student radios to build RCA, the Radio Corporation of America, into one of the biggest companies in the world


Examples of programming

Operas radios to build RCA, the Radio Corporation of America, into one of the biggest companies in the world

Concerts

Sports

News

Dramas

Comedies

Variety shows

Soap operas

Pretty much everything we get on TV today

Examples of programming


Fibber mcgee and molly
Fibber McGee and Molly radios to build RCA, the Radio Corporation of America, into one of the biggest companies in the world


Burns and allen
Burns and Allen radios to build RCA, the Radio Corporation of America, into one of the biggest companies in the world


Fred allen
Fred Allen radios to build RCA, the Radio Corporation of America, into one of the biggest companies in the world


Abbott and costello
Abbott and Costello radios to build RCA, the Radio Corporation of America, into one of the biggest companies in the world


Orson welles 1938
Orson Welles - 1938 radios to build RCA, the Radio Corporation of America, into one of the biggest companies in the world


Hindenburg disaster 1937
Hindenburg disaster - 1937 radios to build RCA, the Radio Corporation of America, into one of the biggest companies in the world


Edward r murrow
Edward R. Murrow radios to build RCA, the Radio Corporation of America, into one of the biggest companies in the world


The advent of television

The Advent of Television radios to build RCA, the Radio Corporation of America, into one of the biggest companies in the world


Radio

  • It was assumed that radio would be dead radios to build RCA, the Radio Corporation of America, into one of the biggest companies in the world

    • Audiences would watch TV instead of listening to the radio

    • TV took over so many of the radio programs

      • Soap operas

      • Dramas

      • Sitcoms

      • Sports

      • news


Radio had a great advantage over tv portability

Radio had a great advantage over TV – radios to build RCA, the Radio Corporation of America, into one of the biggest companies in the worldPortability


Take it anywhere
Take it anywhere radios to build RCA, the Radio Corporation of America, into one of the biggest companies in the world


Even in the car
Even in the car radios to build RCA, the Radio Corporation of America, into one of the biggest companies in the world


New kinds of programming
New kinds of programming radios to build RCA, the Radio Corporation of America, into one of the biggest companies in the world

  • Music

    • Top 40

    • Country

    • Rock

    • Easy listening

    • Golden oldies

  • Talk shows


Howard stern
Howard Stern radios to build RCA, the Radio Corporation of America, into one of the biggest companies in the world


On the right rush limbaugh michael savage glenn beck
On the Right radios to build RCA, the Radio Corporation of America, into one of the biggest companies in the worldRush Limbaugh Michael Savage Glenn Beck


On the left ed schultz stephanie miller
On the Left radios to build RCA, the Radio Corporation of America, into one of the biggest companies in the worldEd Schultz Stephanie Miller