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Study Guide– Spanish Empire building. Crusades & Crusading Mentality Tainos/Arawaks Bull Treaty of Tordesillas Bull Romanus Pontifex Vacuum Domicillum Encomienda Apalachee & Pope Revolt. Study Guide: Questions .

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study guide spanish empire building
Study Guide– Spanish Empire building

Crusades & Crusading Mentality

Tainos/Arawaks

Bull

Treaty of Tordesillas

Bull Romanus Pontifex

Vacuum Domicillum

Encomienda

Apalachee & Pope Revolt

study guide questions
Study Guide: Questions
  • What Nation’s joined in the colonization of North America? How did they contribute to America’s National Heritage?
  • What were their motives?
  • What were their relations with the indigenous peoples?
  • What role did disease play in re-settlement of North America?
  • What ideologies justified subjugation and murder or first nation peoples?
  • Did nations differ in motives? Institutions of conquest and Ideology?
crusades crusading mentality
Crusades & Crusading Mentality
  • 1,000’s of years of invasion for commercial interest
  • 711 Moors defeat last Gothic/Christian King
    • Muslim Contributions to Europe – Cordoba, Spain
  • Crusades beginning in 1095 beginning 600-700 years of struggle
    • Crusades – series of military campaigns waged by Christians
    • Land & Labor
    • Crusading Mentality
      • Valued war
      • Valued accumulated wealth
      • Sense of Religious superiority
      • Sense of Religious Mission
empire building
Empire Building
  • 1452 – Bull Romanus Pontifex
    • Declared war against all non Christians, slavery and exploitation
      • Canary Islands 1400-1490s
      • extermination of Guanches
  • Crusades Mentality
    • Begin to identify expansion with conquest of peoples rather than trade
    • Led exploration over seas
    • formed the rationalization for conquest and invaders assumed an innate and absolute superiority over all other people because of divine endowment
columbus
Columbus
  • Zinn Chapter 1
  • Loewen Chapter 2
    • Heroification
    • Motives
    • Impact on Taino/Arawak
bull intercaeteras treaty of tordesillias
Bull Intercaeteras & Treaty of Tordesillias

1494

1493

Western Hemisphere from Mexico South becomes Spanish

“Sphere of Influence”

motives for exploration
Motives for Exploration
  • Search for Wealth
    • Gold, silver, raw materials
  • Search for All Water Route to Asia
basis for conquest european legalisms
Basis for Conquest:European Legalisms
  • Vacuum Domicillum
    • Duty to civilize and convert people and land from “useless wilderness” to “Useful garden” in the name of god, the right to vacant land
  • Right of Conquest/Discovery
    • Right of Christians to take possession of lands not Christian by force of arms
  • Papal Bull
    • Charter, patent, decree by the Pope
misunderstandings
“Misunderstandings”
  • Sacrifice & ritual Cannibalism Vs. genocide
  • Ambiguous Christian/Moral Messages
  • War & its objectives
  • Gender – Matrilineal vs. Patriarchal
    • Invasion & “conquest” reordered the indigenous world fundamentally
the exchange
New World gets:

Diseases: bubonic plague, pneumonic plague, tuberculosis, small pox, measles, chicken pox, cholera, influenza, typhus

Plants: mainly cultigens (weeds), citrus fruits, grapes, wheat

Animals: pigs, horses, sheep, cattle, goats and rats

New World gives:

Diseases: syphilis (debated)

Plants: corn, beans, squash, potatoes, peanuts, tobacco…

Animals: turkey

The “Exchange”
demographic impact of contact
Demographic Impact of Contact
  • 1492: 100-300 million people in western hemisphere
  • Epidemic Disease killed 65% - 100% of populations
institutions of conquest
Institutions of Conquest
  • Enslavement & Exploitation
  • Presidio, pueblo, Missions, Encomiendas
  • Encomienda –
    • Number of Indians entrusted to an encomendero for labor
    • civilization and Christianization
    • uprooted to work and die in the mines, plantations and public works
new world exploits andes
New World Exploits: Andes
  • Inca Empire
      • 8-12 million people of Inca Empire
      • Advanced in city planning, sciences, agriculture, art…
      • Cotton Textiles pre-date fertile crescent
      • 1531 Francisco Pizarro enters Cuzco
      • Disease major factor in down fall
new world exploits meso america
New World Exploits: Meso-America
  • Aztec Empire
      • Cortez entered Tenochtitlan in 1519
      • Montezuma held prisoner
      • Disease & Tlaxcalans
new world exploits north america
New World Exploits: North America
  • South East (Today United States)
    • Panfilo de Narvaiz – 1528 – Tampa Bay, Fl
      • Apalachee killed 400 soldiers
      • Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca survived, spread rumors of “golden cities”
new world exploits north america24
New World Exploits: North America
  • South West (AZ & NM)
  • Francisco Vasquez de Coronado – 1530s-1661
    • Entered Zuni pueblos of Arizona and New Mexico
    • 1661 – Pope Revolt
      • 400 soldiers killed
      • Lived without Spanish interference until 1689
reading questions
Reading Questions
  • 1. What characterized Indigenous Societies Pre-contact? What generalizations can be reached?
  • 2. When comparing & contrasting European and indigenous values and life ways what problem arises in discussing the issues of “civilization” vs. Barbarism and “progress” vs. primitive or Backward?
reading questions26
Reading Questions
  • 3. What developments allowed Europeans to re-settle the Americas?
  • 4. Why is it important to acknowledge these developments?
  • 5. What evidence is there for non-European exploration in the Americas pre-Columbus? Why is this important to acknowledge
french dutch english re settlement

French, Dutch & English Re-settlement

Challenge to Spain’s Empire Building

study guide french dutch english
Study Guide: French, Dutch & English
  • Reformation
  • French & Haudenosaunee
  • Dutch West India Co. & William Kieft
  • The Lost Colony
  • Jamestown & Pamunkey Tribe
      • Starving Time
      • Opechancanough & the “Just War”
  • Pilgrims at Patuxet & Wampanoags
  • Puritans & Pequot's
      • Puritan Covenant & Pequot War
      • Reservations
      • King Phillip/Metacom’s War
western europe
Western Europe
  • 1337-1453 England & France
    • One Hundred Years War
  • 1347-1351
    • The Black Death – Bubonic Plague
      • 1/3 of Europe’s population
european society
European Society
  • Rigid Hierarchy
    • Monarchs
    • Aristocrats
    • Gentry
    • Peasants and laborers
  • Large Disparity of wealth = class struggle
  • Abuse of power by the Church
protestant reformation
Protestant Reformation
  • Martin Luther 1517
    • 95 Thesis
      • Sale of indulgences to finance St. Peters in Rome
    • Translated Bible into German
    • Direct Relationship with God
95 thesis
95 Thesis
  • Challenged power, wealth and Authority of the church
  • Challenged by emerging commercial class
french re settlement
French Re-settlement
  • 1608 1st French settlement Quebec
  • Relations with the Haudenosaunee (1660s) & the Huron
    • Nation-to-nation basis
    • Friendship, cooperation, alliances, marriage and absorption
dutch swedish
Dutch & Swedish
  • Henry Hudson – 1609
    • Claimed New York, Delaware, Pennsylvania, Virginia for Netherlands
    • Established Dutch West India Co.
      • Mohicans & Pequot's key to expansion and fur trade
  • Friendly relations until no longer useful
    • Director & General William Kieft 1639
      • Advocated extermination of Indians
      • Killed off Many Lenape, Mohicans, Esophus & others
english re settlement
English Re-settlement
  • Sir Walter Raleigh – 1584-1587
    • Roanoke Island (The Lost Colony)
  • Royal Charter to Virginia Co. 1606
    • Jamestown & Pamunkey Tribe
  • Pilgrims – 1620
    • Plymouth (Patuxet), Massachusetts & Wampanoags
  • Massachusetts Bay Company & Colony (1630)
    • The Puritans, Massachusetts Bay & Pequot's
chief powhatan
Chief Powhatan
  • 1607 – Chief Powhatan of the Pamunkey
    • 200 towns & villages – Agriculture, seafood, hunted & gathered
jamestown virginia
Jamestown, Virginia
  • Motive – land & wealth
    • Virginia Co. of London
  • Preconceived notions of Savage
  • Indians impediment

to progress

    • Starving Time – 1607
      • ½ settlers dead
      • Saved by charity of Powhatan
english response
English Response
  • John Smith – 1608
    • “Indian Problem”
    • Military solution
  • Powhatan
    • Stopped gifts of food
  • Population 60/500
    • survived 2nd “Starving Time”
    • Relief ship 1610 saved colony
pocahontas my favorite daughter
Pocahontas “My Favorite Daughter”
  • 1612 kidnapped Matoaka – Powhatans 17 yr old daughter
    • Married John Rolf – mediator until death
resistance effort
Resistance Effort
  • Opechancanough
    • Powhatan's brother and head of the Indian Confederation in 1618
      • Resisted expansion and Exploitation
  • 1622 - 1/3 of colonists killed
    • John Smith
      • “It will be good for the plantation because now we have just cause to destroy them by all means possible”
scorched earth campaign
Scorched Earth Campaign
  • 1622-1644 – “A Just War”
    • Enslaved
    • Take land
    • Poisoned 200 at a “peace conference”
    • War of extermination
genocide removal
Genocide & Removal
  • “Peace”
    • Established boundaries
    • Indian scouts for Virginia Militia
    • Annual tribute of furs
  • 1715 forced removal of remaining tribes
    • Virginia lost 75% of native population
pilgrims of plymouth colony massachusetts bay
Pilgrims of Plymouth Colony, Massachusetts Bay
  • 1620 – Plymouth, Massachusetts
  • Mayflower compact
  • Viewed people of Pamet & Nauset – Satan’s children
indian relations
Indian relations
  • Massasoit “Big Chief” of Wampanoags and other tribes
    • Introduced fur trade
      • Major source of capital
    • Squanto – Patuxet Wampanoag
      • Assisted Pilgrims through “starving time”
  • 1621 – “Thanksgiving”
puritans of massachusetts bay company colony
Puritans of Massachusetts Bay Company & Colony
  • Never endured a “Starving time”
    • By 1640 25,000 puritans out numbered Indians in the region
  • Puritan Covenant & “City Upon the Hill”
    • The chosen elect, outsider – insider mentality
    • God’s chosen, right to land = extermination

Governor & Chief Executive

John Winthrop

pequot war 1637
“Pequot War” 1637
  • “Impediment to Puritan Progress”
    • Pequot's resisted encroachment & killings
removal reservations
Removal & Reservations
  • 1638 – Reservation Campaign
    • 14 plantations, 1200 acres among Quinnipiac Tribe, New Haven, CT.
    • Prohibited tribal government & religion
      • Foreshadowed 19th century reservation system of United States established by the Office of Indian Affairs