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Study Guide– Spanish Empire building. Crusades & Crusading Mentality Tainos/Arawaks Bull Treaty of Tordesillas Bull Romanus Pontifex Vacuum Domicillum Encomienda Apalachee & Pope Revolt. Study Guide: Questions .

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Study guide spanish empire building l.jpg
Study Guide– Spanish Empire building

Crusades & Crusading Mentality



Treaty of Tordesillas

Bull Romanus Pontifex

Vacuum Domicillum


Apalachee & Pope Revolt

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Study Guide: Questions

  • What Nation’s joined in the colonization of North America? How did they contribute to America’s National Heritage?

  • What were their motives?

  • What were their relations with the indigenous peoples?

  • What role did disease play in re-settlement of North America?

  • What ideologies justified subjugation and murder or first nation peoples?

  • Did nations differ in motives? Institutions of conquest and Ideology?

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Crusades & Crusading Mentality Building in the Americas

  • 1,000’s of years of invasion for commercial interest

  • 711 Moors defeat last Gothic/Christian King

    • Muslim Contributions to Europe – Cordoba, Spain

  • Crusades beginning in 1095 beginning 600-700 years of struggle

    • Crusades – series of military campaigns waged by Christians

    • Land & Labor

    • Crusading Mentality

      • Valued war

      • Valued accumulated wealth

      • Sense of Religious superiority

      • Sense of Religious Mission

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Empire Building Building in the Americas

  • 1452 – Bull Romanus Pontifex

    • Declared war against all non Christians, slavery and exploitation

      • Canary Islands 1400-1490s

      • extermination of Guanches

  • Crusades Mentality

    • Begin to identify expansion with conquest of peoples rather than trade

    • Led exploration over seas

    • formed the rationalization for conquest and invaders assumed an innate and absolute superiority over all other people because of divine endowment

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Columbus Building in the Americas

  • Zinn Chapter 1

  • Loewen Chapter 2

    • Heroification

    • Motives

    • Impact on Taino/Arawak

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Bull Intercaeteras & Treaty of Tordesillias Building in the Americas



Western Hemisphere from Mexico South becomes Spanish

“Sphere of Influence”

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Motives for Exploration Building in the Americas

  • Search for Wealth

    • Gold, silver, raw materials

  • Search for All Water Route to Asia

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Basis for Conquest: Building in the AmericasEuropean Legalisms

  • Vacuum Domicillum

    • Duty to civilize and convert people and land from “useless wilderness” to “Useful garden” in the name of god, the right to vacant land

  • Right of Conquest/Discovery

    • Right of Christians to take possession of lands not Christian by force of arms

  • Papal Bull

    • Charter, patent, decree by the Pope

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“Misunderstandings” Building in the Americas

  • Sacrifice & ritual Cannibalism Vs. genocide

  • Ambiguous Christian/Moral Messages

  • War & its objectives

  • Gender – Matrilineal vs. Patriarchal

    • Invasion & “conquest” reordered the indigenous world fundamentally

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New World gets: Building in the Americas

Diseases: bubonic plague, pneumonic plague, tuberculosis, small pox, measles, chicken pox, cholera, influenza, typhus

Plants: mainly cultigens (weeds), citrus fruits, grapes, wheat

Animals: pigs, horses, sheep, cattle, goats and rats

New World gives:

Diseases: syphilis (debated)

Plants: corn, beans, squash, potatoes, peanuts, tobacco…

Animals: turkey

The “Exchange”

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Demographic Impact of Contact Building in the Americas

  • 1492: 100-300 million people in western hemisphere

  • Epidemic Disease killed 65% - 100% of populations

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Institutions of Conquest Building in the Americas

  • Enslavement & Exploitation

  • Presidio, pueblo, Missions, Encomiendas

  • Encomienda –

    • Number of Indians entrusted to an encomendero for labor

    • civilization and Christianization

    • uprooted to work and die in the mines, plantations and public works

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New World Exploits: Andes Building in the Americas

  • Inca Empire

    • 8-12 million people of Inca Empire

    • Advanced in city planning, sciences, agriculture, art…

    • Cotton Textiles pre-date fertile crescent

    • 1531 Francisco Pizarro enters Cuzco

    • Disease major factor in down fall

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Mayan City – Pre-Aztec Building in the Americas

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New World Exploits: Meso-America Building in the Americas

  • Aztec Empire

    • Cortez entered Tenochtitlan in 1519

    • Montezuma held prisoner

    • Disease & Tlaxcalans

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Aztec Court Building in the Americas

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Tenochtitlan Building in the Americas

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Cortez meets with Monteczuma Building in the Americas

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Cortez & Tlaxcalans Building in the Americas

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New World Exploits: North America Building in the Americas

  • South East (Today United States)

    • Panfilo de Narvaiz – 1528 – Tampa Bay, Fl

      • Apalachee killed 400 soldiers

      • Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca survived, spread rumors of “golden cities”

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New World Exploits: North America Building in the Americas

  • South West (AZ & NM)

  • Francisco Vasquez de Coronado – 1530s-1661

    • Entered Zuni pueblos of Arizona and New Mexico

    • 1661 – Pope Revolt

      • 400 soldiers killed

      • Lived without Spanish interference until 1689

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Reading Questions Building in the Americas

  • 1. What characterized Indigenous Societies Pre-contact? What generalizations can be reached?

  • 2. When comparing & contrasting European and indigenous values and life ways what problem arises in discussing the issues of “civilization” vs. Barbarism and “progress” vs. primitive or Backward?

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Reading Questions Building in the Americas

  • 3. What developments allowed Europeans to re-settle the Americas?

  • 4. Why is it important to acknowledge these developments?

  • 5. What evidence is there for non-European exploration in the Americas pre-Columbus? Why is this important to acknowledge

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French, Dutch & English Building in the AmericasRe-settlement

Challenge to Spain’s Empire Building

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Study Guide: French, Dutch & English Building in the Americas

  • Reformation

  • French & Haudenosaunee

  • Dutch West India Co. & William Kieft

  • The Lost Colony

  • Jamestown & Pamunkey Tribe

    • Starving Time

    • Opechancanough & the “Just War”

  • Pilgrims at Patuxet & Wampanoags

  • Puritans & Pequot's

    • Puritan Covenant & Pequot War

    • Reservations

    • King Phillip/Metacom’s War

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    Western Europe Building in the Americas

    • 1337-1453 England & France

      • One Hundred Years War

    • 1347-1351

      • The Black Death – Bubonic Plague

        • 1/3 of Europe’s population

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    European Society Building in the Americas

    • Rigid Hierarchy

      • Monarchs

      • Aristocrats

      • Gentry

      • Peasants and laborers

    • Large Disparity of wealth = class struggle

    • Abuse of power by the Church

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    Protestant Reformation Building in the Americas

    • Martin Luther 1517

      • 95 Thesis

        • Sale of indulgences to finance St. Peters in Rome

      • Translated Bible into German

      • Direct Relationship with God

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    95 Thesis Building in the Americas

    • Challenged power, wealth and Authority of the church

    • Challenged by emerging commercial class

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    French Re-settlement Building in the Americas

    • 1608 1st French settlement Quebec

    • Relations with the Haudenosaunee (1660s) & the Huron

      • Nation-to-nation basis

      • Friendship, cooperation, alliances, marriage and absorption

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    Dutch & Swedish Building in the Americas

    • Henry Hudson – 1609

      • Claimed New York, Delaware, Pennsylvania, Virginia for Netherlands

      • Established Dutch West India Co.

        • Mohicans & Pequot's key to expansion and fur trade

    • Friendly relations until no longer useful

      • Director & General William Kieft 1639

        • Advocated extermination of Indians

        • Killed off Many Lenape, Mohicans, Esophus & others

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    English Re-settlement Building in the Americas

    • Sir Walter Raleigh – 1584-1587

      • Roanoke Island (The Lost Colony)

    • Royal Charter to Virginia Co. 1606

      • Jamestown & Pamunkey Tribe

    • Pilgrims – 1620

      • Plymouth (Patuxet), Massachusetts & Wampanoags

    • Massachusetts Bay Company & Colony (1630)

      • The Puritans, Massachusetts Bay & Pequot's

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    Chief Powhatan Building in the Americas

    • 1607 – Chief Powhatan of the Pamunkey

      • 200 towns & villages – Agriculture, seafood, hunted & gathered

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    Jamestown, Virginia Building in the Americas

    • Motive – land & wealth

      • Virginia Co. of London

    • Preconceived notions of Savage

    • Indians impediment

      to progress

      • Starving Time – 1607

        • ½ settlers dead

        • Saved by charity of Powhatan

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    English Building in the AmericasResponse

    • John Smith – 1608

      • “Indian Problem”

      • Military solution

    • Powhatan

      • Stopped gifts of food

    • Population 60/500

      • survived 2nd “Starving Time”

      • Relief ship 1610 saved colony

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    Pocahontas “My Favorite Daughter” Building in the Americas

    • 1612 kidnapped Matoaka – Powhatans 17 yr old daughter

      • Married John Rolf – mediator until death

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    Resistance Effort Building in the Americas

    • Opechancanough

      • Powhatan's brother and head of the Indian Confederation in 1618

        • Resisted expansion and Exploitation

    • 1622 - 1/3 of colonists killed

      • John Smith

        • “It will be good for the plantation because now we have just cause to destroy them by all means possible”

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    1622 Building in the Americas

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    Scorched Earth Campaign Building in the Americas

    • 1622-1644 – “A Just War”

      • Enslaved

      • Take land

      • Poisoned 200 at a “peace conference”

      • War of extermination

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    Genocide & Removal Building in the Americas

    • “Peace”

      • Established boundaries

      • Indian scouts for Virginia Militia

      • Annual tribute of furs

    • 1715 forced removal of remaining tribes

      • Virginia lost 75% of native population

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    Pilgrims of Plymouth Colony, Massachusetts Bay Building in the Americas

    • 1620 – Plymouth, Massachusetts

    • Mayflower compact

    • Viewed people of Pamet & Nauset – Satan’s children

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    Indian relations Building in the Americas

    • Massasoit “Big Chief” of Wampanoags and other tribes

      • Introduced fur trade

        • Major source of capital

      • Squanto – Patuxet Wampanoag

        • Assisted Pilgrims through “starving time”

    • 1621 – “Thanksgiving”

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    Puritans of Massachusetts Bay Company & Colony Building in the Americas

    • Never endured a “Starving time”

      • By 1640 25,000 puritans out numbered Indians in the region

    • Puritan Covenant & “City Upon the Hill”

      • The chosen elect, outsider – insider mentality

      • God’s chosen, right to land = extermination

    Governor & Chief Executive

    John Winthrop

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    “Pequot War” 1637 Building in the Americas

    • “Impediment to Puritan Progress”

      • Pequot's resisted encroachment & killings

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    Removal & Reservations Building in the Americas

    • 1638 – Reservation Campaign

      • 14 plantations, 1200 acres among Quinnipiac Tribe, New Haven, CT.

      • Prohibited tribal government & religion

        • Foreshadowed 19th century reservation system of United States established by the Office of Indian Affairs