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Culminating Project: Timeline. LEGEND. Marion Carter. EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology. Technology Timeline. Strand 1 TOFFLER’S THREE WAVES. Agricultural Age. First Wave: The Agricultural Age 0-8000 BC.

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culminating project timeline

Culminating Project: Timeline


Marion Carter

EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology

technology timeline

Technology Timeline

Strand 1


EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology

agricultural age
Agricultural Age

First Wave: The Agricultural Age 0-8000 BC

The first wave era was the first turning point in human social development, and dominated the earth unchallenged until 1650-1750 AD (Toffler, 1980). Before the First wave of change, most humans lived in small, often migratory groups and fed themselves by foraging, fishing, hunting, or herding. At some point, roughly ten millennia ago, the agricultural revolution began, and it crept slowly across the planet spreading villages, settlements, cultivated land, and a new way of life.

EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology

industrial age
Industrial Age

Second Wave: The Industrial Age 0-1600

is the society during the Industrial Revolution (ca. late 1600s through the mid-1900s). The main components of the Second Wave society are nuclear family, factory-type education system and the corporation. Toffler writes: "The Second Wave Society is industrial and based on mass production, mass distribution, mass consumption, mass education, mass media, mass recreation, mass entertainment, and weapons of mass destruction. You combine those things with standardization, centralization, concentration, and synchronization, and you wind up with a style of organization we call bureaucracy." (Toffler, 1980)

EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology

information age
Information Age

Third Wave: The Information Age 0-1956

Third Wave is the post-industrial society. Toffler would also add that since late 1950s most countries are moving away from a Second Wave Society into what he would call a Third Wave Society. He coined lots of words to describe it and mentions names invented by him (super-industrial society) and other people (like the Information Age, Space Age, Electronic Era, Global Village, technetronic age, scientific-technological revolution), which to various degrees predicted demassification, diversity, knowledge-based production, and the acceleration of change (one of Toffler’s key maxims is "change is non-linear and can go backwards, forwards and sideways").

EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology

technology timeline1

Technology Timeline

Strand 2




EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology

advances and innovations
Advances and Innovations




1900 Charles Seeberger invented the modern escalator

1901 The first radio receiver successfully received a radio


Hubert Booth invents the modern vacuum cleaner

1902 Willis Carrier invents the air conditioner

The polygraph machine is invented by James Mackenzie

Neon light was invented by George Claude

1903 Wright brothers invented the first gas motored and manned


Mary Anderson invents windshield wipers

1904 Electronic amplifying tube is invented

1907 Color Photography invented by Auguste and Louise Lumiere

1908 J.W. Geiger and W Muller invented the geiger counter

EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology

advances and innovations1
Advances and Innovations




1910 Thomas Edison demonstrated the first talking motion picture.

1911 The first automobile electrical ignition system invented by Charles Kettering

1912 Motorized movie cameras invented

1912 Clarence Crane created Life Savers candy

1914 Garrett A. Morgan invented the gas mask

1915 Pyrex was invented by Eugene Sullivan and William Taylor

1916 Radio tuners that received different stations was invented

EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology

advances and innovations2
Advances and Innovations




1920 Tommy Gun patented by John Thompson

1921 First robot built (beginning of artificial life)

1922 First 3-D movie is released

1923 Garrett A. Morgan invents a traffic signal

Television (iconoscope) cathode ray tube invented

John Harwood invented the self-winding watch

1924 Rice and Kellogg invent the loudspeaker

1925 The mechanical television invented by John Baird

1926 Liquid fuel rockets invented by Robert Goddard

1927 JWA Morrison invents the first quartz crystal watch

Paul Galvin invents the car radio

EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology

advances and innovations3
Advances and Innovations




1930 Neoprene invented by Wallace Carothers and Dupont

Differential analyzer (analog computer invented at


Frank Whittle and Dr. Hans von Ohain invent jet


1931 Harold Edgerton invented stop action photography

The electron microscope is invented

1932 Polaroid photography invented

Zoom lens and light meter invented

Karl Jansky invents the radio telescope

1933 Frequency modulation invented by Edwin Armstrong

1934 Joseph Begun invents the first tape recorder for


EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology

advances and innovations4
Advances and Innovations



1930-1939 (continued)

1936 Roy Plunkett invented tetrafluoroethylene polymers (teflon)

First working turboprop.

1939 Electron microscope invented

EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology

advances and innovations5
Advances and Innovations




1940 Dr William Reich invents the orgone accumulator

Peter Goldmark invents modern color television

1941 Konrad Zuse creates “Z3” the first computer

controlled by software

Enrico Fermi invents the neutronic reactor.

1942 J. Atanasoff and C Berry built the first digital


1943 Emile Gagnan and Jacques Cousteau invent aqualung

1944 Kidney dialysis machine invented by Willem Kolff

Synthetic cortisone invented by percy Julian

1945 The atomic bomb invented

1946 Microwave oven invented by Percy Spencer

EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology

advances and innovations6
Advances and Innovations




1951 Power steering invented by Francis Davis

Charles Ginsburg invented the first video tape


1952 First patent for barcode issued

Edward Teller builds hydrogen bomb

1953 Radial tires invented

First musical synthesizer invented by RCA

David Warren invents the flight recorder

Transistor radio invented by Texas Instrument

1957 Fortran, the computer language invented

1958 Computer modem invented

Gordon Gould invents the laser

Integrated circuit invented by J. Kilby and R. Noyce

1959 Internal pacemaker invented by Wilson Greatbatch

Kilby and Noyce invent the microchip

EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology

advances and innovations7
Advances and Innovations




1960 The halogen lamp invented

1962 The audio cassette invented

Spacewar, the first computer video game invented

Silicone breast implants invented by Dow Corporation

1963 The video disk invented

1964 Basic, (computer language) invented by Kemeny and Kurtz

1965 Compact disk invented by James Russell

1969 Arpanet the first internet invented

Artificial Art invented

Automated Teller Machine invented

The barcode scanner invented

EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology

advances and innovations8
Advances and Innovations




1970 Daisy wheel printer invented

Floppy disk invented

1971 Dot matrix printer, food processor, microprocessor, VCR and

LCD invented

1972 Word processor invented

First video game invented

1973 Gene splicing invented

Ethernet invented by Robert Metcalfe and Xerox

1974 Georgio Fischer invents liposuction

1975 Laser printer invented

1976 Cell phone invented

Supercomputer invented by Seymour Cray

Walkman invented

EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology

advances and innovations9
Advances and Innovations




1981 MS-DOS invented

First IBM-PC invented

Scanning tunneling microscope invented

1982 Human growth hormone genetically engineered

1983 The Apple Lisa invented

Soft bifocal contact lens invented

virtual reality coined by Jaron Lanier

1984 CD-ROM invented

Apple Macintosh invented

1985 Windows program invented by Microsoft

1986 High temperature super conductor invented

Synthetic skin invented

Doppler radar invented by Christian Doppler

1989 High Definition Television invented

EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology

advances and innovations10
Advances and Innovations




1990 World Wide Web and internet protocol and www language


1991 Digital answering machine invented

1993 Pentium processor invented

1995 Java computer language invented

DVD invented

1996 WebTV invented

1997 gas powered fuel cell invented

EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology

advances and innovations11
Advances and Innovations




FluidSense infusion pump invented


AbioCor artificial heart invented

Artificial liver invented

Fuel cell bike invented by Aprillia

Self cleaning windows invented by PPG industries

Apple Computers announced their portable digital player, the Ipod


Braille Glove invented by Ryan Patterson

Phone tooth invented

Solar Tower invented by Jorg Schlaich

EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology

advances and innovations12
Advances and Innovations




Optical Camouflage System invented

Toyota’s Hybrid Car

Ka-on or Flower Sound (plants that play music) invented by Let’s


Intel Express Chipsets that provide inexpensive built in sound and video capabilities for the PC including the ability to do high definition video editing.

Sono Prep invented. This device delivers medication by sound waves rather than injection


YouTube- online video sharing invented

EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology

business and corporate timeline

Business and Corporate Timeline

Strand 2




EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology




  • 1900 Olds Company begins mass producing automobiles
  • 1901 J. P. Morgan combines ten separate companies, including Carnegie Steel, to form the United States Steel Corporation.
  • 1903 Ford and Buick motor companies are founded
  • 1903 Wright Brothers make first flight
  • 1904 U.S. takes over construction of Panama Canal
  • 1906 W. K. Kellogg starts the Battle Creek Toasted Corn Flake Company.
  • 1908 Ford introduces the Model T. General Motors formed: Buick and Olds Motor Vehicle companies.
  • 1910 Joyce Hall begins a wholesale post card business (Hallmark)
  • 1911 Court orders breakup of Standard Oil
  • 1912 L.L. Bean formed
  • 1914 Panama canal opens
  • 1917 William Boeing renames his aviation company The Boeing Airplane Company.

EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology




  • 1919 Along with Westinghouse and other companies, General Electric forms the Radio Corporation of America (RCA).
  • 1920 Eddie Bauer's Tennis Shop opens; name soon changes to Eddie Bauer's Sports Shop.
  • 1922 Henry Luce forms Time, Inc.
  • 1923With his brother Roy, Walt Disney forms Disney Brothers Studio, which later becomes the Walt Disney Company.
  • Mass concentration of wealth through acquisitions, such as one with J.P. Morgan to form the United States Steel Company in 1901, and the unbridled power of investment banking firms, led labor unrest to the doorstep of a population of one percent owning more national wealth than the other 99 percent.
  • 1929 American Stock Market Crash
  • 1934 FDR signs bill for FHA Federal Housing Administration
  • 1938 Earl Tupper forms the Earl S. Tupper Company. (Tupperware)
  • 1939 First commercial television broadcast
  • 1942 All Chrysler, Ford, and General Motors plants convert to military production.

EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology

1948 Richard and Maurice McDonald open their first fast-food restaurant in San Bernadino, California.

1957 First Japanese car sold in the US, the Toyota

1958 Bank of America launches the first credit card

1959 Berry Gordy launches the Tamla and Motown record labels after borrowing $800 from his family.

1962 The first Walmart and K-mart stores open and Coca Cola introduces Tab cola.

1965 President Johnson signs Medicare into law.

1968 NIKE shoe company launched

1969 Gap stores opened by Donald and Doris Fisher

1969 J.L. Hudson and Dayton Company Merger to form Dayton Hudson. Dayton Hudson Corporation operates the well-known Target discount stores, Mervyn's moderately priced retail stores, and the Dayton's, Hudson's, and Marshall Field department stores in the Midwest.

1971 First Starbucks opens

1971 Southwest Airlines begins first flights

1973 Federal Express begins operations from Memphis, TN.

1974 Wally “Famous”Amos begins production of cookies.



EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology

1975 Microsoft formed

1976 Apple Computer begins software development of personal computers

1978 Ben and Jerry’s open first ice cream shop in Vermont.

1985 Formation of HARPO productions, self named and owned by Oprah Winfrey and the Oprah Winfrey Show, formally A.M. Chicago

1985 Michael Jordan signs with NIKE

1989 Time Inc, and Warner Communications merge to form Time Warner

1994 Dream Works SKG entertainment formed

1995 Jeff Bezos opens, the online bookstore

1996 Time Warner purchases Ted Turner’s Turner Broadcasting parent company of Cable News Network

1997 Martha Stewart buys her magazine Martha Stewart Living from Time Wamer and launches Martha Stewart Living Omnimedia, Inc.

1998 Chrysler merges with Daimler-Benz to form Chrysler Daimler AG

2000 Dayton Hudson becomes “Target” department stores

2001 America Online buys Time Warner forming AOL Time Warner



EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology

learning theory timeline

Learning Theory Timeline

Strand 4




EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology

thorndike law of effect 1903
Thorndike: Law of Effect 1903

The association between a stimulus and a response will strengthen or weakened depending on whether a satisfier or an annoyer follows the response. Actions that lead immediately to pleasure are remembered and repeated, eventually fossilizing into habits, whereas actions leading to pain are suppressed or avoided.

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wilhelm wundt gestalt psychology 1910
Wilhelm Wundt:Gestalt Psychology: 1910

Wilhelm Wundts Gestalt psychology is a school of thought that looks at the human mind and behavior as a whole.

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piaget genetic epistomology 1929
Piaget: Genetic Epistomology1929

GENETIC EPISTEMOLOGY attempts to explain knowledge, and in particular scientific knowledge, on the basis of its history, its socio-genesis, and especially the psychological origins of the notions and operations upon which it is based. These notions and operations are drawn in large part from common sense, so that their origins can shed light on their significance as knowledge of a somewhat higher level. But genetic epistemology also takes into account, wherever possible, formalization - in particular, logical formalizations applied to equilibrated thought structures and in certain cases to transformations from one level to another in the development of thought.

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horkheimer traditional and critical theory 1937
Horkheimer: Traditional and Critical Theory 1937

Critical theory is the examination and critique of society and culture, drawing from knowledge across the social sciences and humanities. The term has two quite different meanings with different origins and histories, one originating in social theory and the other in literary criticism.

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b f skinner operant conditioning 1938
B. F. Skinner: Operant Conditioning 1938

A process of behavior modification in which the likelihood of a specific behavior is increased or decreased through positive or negative reinforcement each time the behavior is exhibited, so that the subject comes to associate the pleasure or displeasure of the reinforcement with the behavior.

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guthrie contiguity theory 1956
Guthrie: Contiguity Theory 1956

Guthrie's contiguity theory specifies that "a combination of stimuli which has accompanied a movement will on its recurrence tend to be followed by that movement". According to Guthrie, all learning was a consequence of association between a particular stimulus and response. Furthermore, Guthrie argued that stimuli and responses affect specific sensory-motor patterns; what is learned are movements, not behaviors.

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miller information processing theory 1956
Miller: Information Processing Theory 1956

The information processing theory approach to the study of cognitive development evolved out of the American experimental tradition in psychology. Information processing theorists proposed that like the computer, the human mind is a system that processes information through the application of logical rules and strategies. Like the computer, the mind has a limited capacity for the amount and nature of the information it can process.

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bruner discovery learning 1966
Bruner: Discovery Learning 1966

There are four components to the Discovery Learning Theory:

1. Curiosity and uncertainty

2. Structure of knowledge

3. Sequencing

4. Motivation

Discovery learning takes place in problem solving situations where the learner draws on his own experience and prior knowledge and is a method of instruction through which students interact with their environment by exploring and manipulating objects, wrestling with questions and controversies, or performing experiments.

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bandura social learning theory 1969
Bandura: Social Learning Theory 1969

The social learning theory of Bandura emphasizes the importance of observing and modeling the behaviors, attitudes, and emotional reactions of others. Bandura (1977) states: "Learning would be exceedingly laborious, not to mention hazardous, if people had to rely solely on the effects of their own actions to inform them what to do. Fortunately, most human behavior is learned observationally through modeling: from observing others one forms an idea of how new behaviors are performed, and on later occasions this coded information serves as a guide for action." (p22). Social learning theory explains human behavior in terms of continuous reciprocal interaction between cognitive, behavioral, an environmental influences.

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paulo freire pedagogy of the oppressed 1969
Paulo Freire: Pedagogy of the Oppressed 1969

"The oppressed, instead of striving for liberation, tend themselves to become oppressors“ "Liberation is thus a childbirth, and a painful one.""The oppressed want at any cost to resemble the oppressors.""Attempting to liberate the oppressed without their reflective participation in the act of liberation is to treat them as objects that must be saved from a burning building.""Implicit in the banking concept is the assumption of a dichotomy between human beings and the world: a person is merely in the world, not with the world or with others; the individual is spectator, not re-creator.""Problem-posing education affirms men and women as beings in the process of becoming.“ "To speak a true word is to transform the world.""Welfare programs as instruments of manipulation ultimately serve the end of conquest. They act as an anesthetic, distracting the oppressed from the true causes of their problems and from the concrete solutions of these problems."Leaders who do not act dialogically, but insist on imposing their decisions, do not organize the people--they manipulate them. They do not liberate, nor are they liberated: they oppress."

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edward de bono lateral thinking 1971
Edward de Bono: Lateral Thinking 1971

1. "You cannot dig a hole in a different place by digging the same hole deeper"

This means that trying harder in the same direction may not be as useful as changing direction. Effort in the same direction (approach) will not necessarily succeed.

2. "Lateral Thinking is for changing concepts and perceptions"

With logic you start out with certain ingredients just as in playing chess you start out with given pieces. But what are those pieces? In most real life situations the pieces are not given, we just assume they are there. We assume certain perceptions, certain concepts and certain boundaries. Lateral thinking is concerned not with playing with the existing pieces but with seeking to change those very pieces. Lateral thinking is concerned with the perception part of thinking. This is where we organize the external world into the pieces we can then 'process'.

3. "The brain as a self-organizing information system forms asymmetric patterns. In such systems there is a mathematical need for moving across patterns. The tools and processes of lateral thinking are designed to achieve such 'lateral' movement. The tools are based on an understanding of self-organizing information systems."

This is a technical definition which depends on an understanding of self-organizing information systems.

4. "In any self-organizing system there is a need to escape from a local optimum in order to move towards a more global optimum. The techniques of lateral thinking, such as provocation, are designed to help that change."

This is another technical definition. It is important because it also defines the mathematical need for creativity

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craik and lockhart levels of processing theory 1972
Craik and Lockhart: Levels of Processing Theory 1972

These two authors proposed that memory was enhanced more by depth of processing than by how long information was rehearsed. They suggested that rehearsal was mainly effective if the rehearsal was done in a deep and meaningful way. In a number of experiments they demonstrated that passive rehearsal does not result in better retention. They opposed the view that short-term and long-term memory were different.

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meichenbaun cognitive behavior modification 1977
Meichenbaun: Cognitive Behavior Modification 1977

Donald Meichenbaum is a psychologist noted for his contributions to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). He developed a therapeutic technique called cognitive behavior modification (CBM), which focuses on identifying dysfunctional self-talk in order to change unwanted behaviors. In other words, Dr. Meichenbaum views behaviors as outcomes of our own self-verbalizations.

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vygotsky social development theory 1978
Vygotsky: Social Development Theory 1978

Social Development Theory argues that social interaction precedes development; consciousness and cognition are the end product of socialization and social behavior.

Originator: Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934).

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feuerstein instrumental enrichment 1980
Feuerstein: Instrumental Enrichment 1980

Enhancing thinking and learning skills to increase achievement. Enhancing self-concept and intrinsic motivation to learn and solve problems.

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habermas critical communication theory 1981
Habermas: Critical Communication Theory 1981

Critical Theory agrees with that of Karl Marx in that ' must become conscious of how an ideology reflects and distorts ... reality ... and what factors ... influence and sustain the false consciousness which it represents -- especially reified powers of domination.' Habermas' 'perspective transformation' or transformed consciousness is similar to that of Marx and is akin to that experienced by research into the way that 'sexual, racial, religious, educational, occupational, political economic and technological' ideologies create or contribute to our dependency on 'reified powers'. Habermas differs from Marx in that Marx revised Hegelian thought to claim that a transformed consciousness should lead to a predictable form of action -- for example (Marx & Engels, 1969), the abolition of private property (p 96). Habermas posits no predictable outcomes (Mezirow, 1981).

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gagne conditions of learning 1985
Gagne: Conditions of Learning 1985

This theory stipulates that there are several different types or levels of learning. The significance of these classifications is that each different type requires different types of instruction. Gagne identifies five major categories of learning: verbal information, intellectual skills, cognitive strategies, motor skills and attitudes. Different internal and external conditions are necessary for each type of learning. For example, for cognitive strategies to be learned, there must be a chance to practice developing new solutions to problems; to learn attitudes, the learner must be exposed to a credible role model or persuasive arguments.

Gagne suggests that learning tasks for intellectual skills can be organized in a hierarchy according to complexity: stimulus recognition, response generation, procedure following, use of terminology, discriminations, concept formation, rule application, and problem solving. The primary significance of the hierarchy is to identify prerequisites that should be completed to facilitate learning at each level. Prerequisites are identified by doing a task analysis of a learning/training task. Learning hierarchies provide a basis for the sequencing of instruction.

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wittrock generative learning theory 1986
Wittrock: Generative Learning Theory 1986

Wittrock (1974a, 1974b) initially conceived of the model of generative learning that integrated several areas of cognitive psychology including cognitive development, human learning, human abilities, information processing, and aptitude treatment interactions. His work stems from an attempt to explain and prescribe teaching strategies to maximize reading comprehension. While most of the original research deals specifically with reading comprehension, in theory there is much transferability to learning for understanding in general, regardless of the medium or form of the external stimuli. This article embraces the broader interpretation of this theory and model of learning.

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pavio dual coding theory 1991
Pavio: Dual Coding Theory 1991

The dual coding theory proposed by Paivio attempts to give equal weight to verbal and non-verbal processing. Paivio (1986) states: "Human cognition is unique in that it has become specialized for dealing simultaneously with language and with nonverbal objects and events. Moreover, the language system is peculiar in that it deals directly with linguistic input and output (in the form of speech or writing) while at the same time serving a symbolic function with respect to nonverbal objects, events, and behaviors. Any representational theory must accommodate this dual functionality." (p 53).

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lave situated learning 1991
Lave: Situated Learning 1991

Lave argues that learning as it normally occurs is a function of the activity, context and culture in which it occurs (i.e., it is situated). This contrasts with most classroom learning activities which involve knowledge which is abstract and out of context. Social interaction is a critical component of situated learning -- learners become involved in a "community of practice" which embodies certain beliefs and behaviors to be acquired. As the beginner or newcomer moves from the periphery of this community to its center, they become more active and engaged within the culture and hence assume the role of expert or old-timer. Furthermore, situated learning is usually unintentional rather than deliberate. These ideas are what Lave & Wenger (1991) call the process of "legitimate peripheral participation."

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society and culture

Society and Culture

Strand 5



EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology

John Dewey founded the first elementary school

The Montessori Method (child centered alternative

education) created and developed by Maria Montessori.

Association of American Universities formed to promote high standards in colleges

Safety in food processing and the environment became issues and laws were enacted

Jim Crow Laws segregated national baseball

President McKinley assassinated 1901



EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology

The 1910s was a decade of great change for America.  It was during this decade that the United States was first considered a world leader.  Many of the issues of 1910 are ones we face today: including the escalation of immigration and poverty, labor and monopoly battles, work safety and child labor problems.  World War I - the first 'war to end all wars' raged. The 1910s were the decade America came of age.

During the 1910s labor unions continued to grow as the middle classes became more and more unhappy.

The Nineteenth Amendment (Amendment XIX) to the United States Constitution prohibits each of the states and the federal government from denying any citizen the right to vote because of that citizen's sex. It was ratified in 1919.

The National Urban League begins. In October, the National Urban League was organized to help African-Americans secure equal employment. Professor Kelly Miller was a founding member.

Federal segregation. On April 11, 1913 the Wilson administration began government-wide segregation of work places, rest rooms and lunch rooms.

Red Summer." This was the year of the "Red Summer," with 26 race riots between the months of April and October. These included disturbances in the following areas:May 10 Charleston, South Carolina. July 13 Gregg and Longview counties, Texas. July 19-23 Washington, D. C. July 27 Chicago. October 1-3 Elaine, Arkansas.



EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology

Harlem Renaissance is considered the first important movement of black artists and writers in the US.  Centered in Harlem, NY, and other urban areas during the 1920s, black writers published more than ever before.  Influential and lasting black authors, artists, and musicians received their first serious critical appraisal.  This group included Zora Neale Hurston, W.E.B. DuBois, Langston Hughes, Jean Toomer, and Alain Locke, who was considered the chief interpreter for the Harlem movement.

The decade of the 1920s is often characterized as a period of American prosperity and optimism. It was the "Roaring Twenties," the decade of bath tub gin, the model T, the $5 work day, the first transatlantic flight, and the movie. It is often seen as a period of great advance as the nation became urban and commercial (Calvin Coolidge declared that America's business was business). The decade is also seen as a period of rising intolerance and isolation: chastened by the first world war, historians often point out that Americans retreated into a provincialism evidenced by the rise of the Ku Klux Klan, the anti- radical hysteria of the Palmer raids, restrictive immigration laws, and prohibition. Overall, the decade is often seen as a period of great contradiction: of rising optimism and deadening cynicism, of increasing and decreasing faith, of great hope and great despair. Put differently, historians usually see the 1920s as a decade of serious cultural conflict.

The rise of bootleggers such as Al Capone in Chicago highlight the darker side of prohibition.

In October 1929, the Wall Street Crash occurred. Its impact was felt worldwide.



EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology

By the 1930s money was scarce because of the depression, so people did what they could to make their lives happy.  Movies were hot, parlor games and board games were popular.  People gathered around radios to listen to the Yankees.  Young people danced to the big bands.  Franklin Roosevelt influenced Americans with his fireside chats.

The construction of the Empire State Building begins in NY. The Chrysler Building is completed.

On March 3, 1931 the United States officially adopts “The Star Spangled Banner” as its national anthem.

1932 Unemployment reaches 14,000,000

The New Deal, introduced by F D Roosevelt was to transform America's economy which had been shattered by the Wall Street Crash. The economic downturn that followed the Wall Street Crash also had a major psychological impact on America and that Roosevelt was actually doing something did a great deal to boost America's self-esteem

The New York's World Fair of 1939 - true to its theme of "The World of Tomorrow" - gave its estimated 25.8 million visitors a glimpse of the future.  The fairgoers marveled at the flickering images of a TV set at the RCA Building and were amazed at the General Motors exhibit of a seven-lane cross-country highway system.  Many of the innovations demonstrated did not become a part of every day life until after World War II, but there was a peek at the technology to come.



EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology

The 1940's were dominated by World War II. European artists and intellectuals fled Hitler and the Holocaust, bringing new ideas created in disillusionment. War production pulled us out of the Great Depression. Women were needed to replace men who had gone off to war, and so the first great exodus of women from the home to the workplace began. Rationing affected the food we ate, the clothes we wore, the toys with which children played.

1941 Japanese bomb Pearl Harbor

July 22, 1944, an international conference at Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, to discuss the economics of the postwar world, results in the formation of the World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF).

1945 First computer built ENIAC

1945 United Nations founded

1946 Bikinis introduced

1947 Polaroid camera invented

1948 Big Bang Theory

World War II changed the order of world power; the  United States and the USSR become super powers

Supreme Court decides Blacks have the right to vote



EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology

The end of World War II brought thousands of young servicemen back to America to pick up their lives and start new families in new homes with new jobs. With an energy never before experienced, American industry expanded to meet peacetime needs. Americans began buying goods not available during the war, which created corporate expansion of jobs.

1950 In January, US senator Joe McCarthy warns President Truman that the State Department is 'riddled with Communists' and begins anti-Communist witch-hunt.

1951 National television broadcasting begins in the U.S. Color TV Introduced

1952 Polio vaccine created

1954 American rock 'n' roll musician Bill Haley releases 'Rock around the Clock'. The first portable transistor radios are marketed.

Drive-in movies  became popular for families and teens. Cars were seen as an indicator of prosperity and cool-ness. Highways were built to take people quickly from one place to another, by-passing small towns and helping to create central marketing areas or shopping malls such as Sharpstown Mall, Gulfgate Mall and Meyerland Plaza in Houston.

1955 In Alabama on 1 December, Rosa Parks, a black woman, refuses to give up her bus seat to a white man. Her arrest for this triggers Martin Luther King's successful boycott of the Montgomery bus system (lasts until November 1956).

1956 On 17 January, American singer Elvis Presley releases 'Heartbreak Hotel', beginning a career that will lead him to be hailed as the king of rock 'n' roll.



EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology

The sixties were the age of youth, as 70 million children from the post-war baby boom became teenagers and young adults.  The movement away from the conservative fifties continued and eventually resulted in revolutionary ways of thinking and real change in the cultural fabric of American life.  No longer content to be images of the generation ahead of them, young people wanted change. The changes affected education, values, lifestyles, laws, and entertainment.  Many of the revolutionary ideas which began in the sixties are continuing to evolve today.

1963 JFK Assassinated, Martin Luther King delivers his “I have a Dream Speech”

1964 Civil Rights Act passed

1965 Watts Riots break out in Los Angeles, Malcolm X assassinated, Vietnam war intensifies,

1966 Black Panther Party established, Mao Zedong launches cultural revolution.

1968 Martin Luther King assassinated, Robert F Kennedy assassinated

1969 On 20 July, American astronaut Neil Armstrong becomes the first human to set foot on the surface of the moon.

The Woodstock (New York) music festival in August, attending by over 500,000 people, features rock artists such as Jimi Hendrix and Bob Dylan and signals the presence of a widespread hippie culture.



EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology

“The chaotic events of the 60's, including war and social change, seemed destined to continue in the 70's.  Major trends included a growing disillusionment of government, advances in civil rights, increased influence of the women's movement, a heightened concern for the environment, and increased space exploration.  Many of the "radical" ideas of the 60's gained wider acceptance in the new decade, and were mainstreamed into American life and culture.  Amid war, social realignment and presidential impeachment proceedings, American culture flourished.  Indeed, the events of the times were reflected in and became the inspiration for much of the music, literature, entertainment, and even fashion of the decade.”

1970, 4 Kent State students killed by National Guard in protest of the Vietnam war. Signals the abrubt end of “flower power”, and protests take on a more serious role.

1970 April 22, First Earth Day

1970 June 28, First Gay Pride march held in New York

1972 Munich Olympics Massacre September 5. As the world watched, as Palestinian terrorist murdered 11 Israeli Olympians 

1973 ROE v. WADE legalized abortion

1973 After nearly 10 years of war in Vietnam 1973 was also the year that allied forces pulled out of Vietnam.

Another significant factor in the 70's was the growth in women’s rights and women’s role in society including the ability to decide when where and if they wished to have children.



EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology

(1970’s Continued)

1974 August 8, Richard Nixon forced to resigned as President of the United States amid pending impeachment proceedings due to the Watergate scandal.

1976 July 4, America celebrates 200 years of the Declaration of Independence

1977 Elvis Presley dies at age 42

1978 American religious cult leader Jim Jones and 900 People's Temple followers die in mass suicide in Jonestown, Guyana. 

Mood rings, lava lamps, Rubik's cube, Sea Monkeys, smiley face stickers, string art, and pet rocks all captured the imagination of Americans during this decade.  The wildest fad surely was streaking nude through very public places!   Families vacationed in station wagons and everyone wanted an RV.

1978 On 17 September, the Camp David accords between US president Jimmy Carter, Israeli prime minister Menachem Begin and Egyptian president Anwar Sadat provide the basis for the Middle East peace process.

1978 A committee of the US House of Representatives concludes that a second gunman was involved in the assassination of President Kennedy in 1963.

1979 On 16 January, the shah of Iran flees the country. Ayatollah Khomeini returns from exile on 1 February to lead the government. An Islamic republic is declared on 1 April. On 4 November, more than 60 American hostages are taken at the US embassy in Iran (crisis ends on 20 January 1981).



EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology

The 1980s became the Me! Me! Me! generation of status seekers.   During the 1980s, hostile takeovers, leveraged buyouts, and mega-mergers spawned a new breed of billionaire. Labels were everything, even (or especially) for our children.  Tom Wolfe dubbed the baby-boomers as the 'splurge generation.'  Video games, aerobics, minivans, camcorders, and talk shows became part of our lives.   The decade began with double-digit inflation, Reagan declared a war on drugs, Kermit didn't find it easy to be green, hospital costs rose, we lost many, many of our finest talents to AIDS which before the decade ended spread to black and Hispanic women, and  unemployment rose.  On the bright side, the US Constitution had its 200th birthday, Gone with the Wind turned 50,  ET phoned home, and in 1989 Americans gave $115,000,000,000 to charity.  And, Internationally, at the very end of the decade the Berlin Wall was removed - making great changes for the decade to come!   At the turn of the decade, many were happy to leave the spendthrift 80s for the 90s, although some thought the eighties TOTALLY AWESOME.

1980 Cable News Network (CNN) was launched

1980 John Lennon assassinated

1980 Black and Hispanic Barbie are introduced

1980 Bill Gates licenses MS-DOS, makes next to nothing on the deal.

1980 On 19 June, the Olympic games open in Moscow, boycotted by 45 nations because of the Soviet Union's invasion of Afghanistan

1980 On 4 November, former film actor Ronald Reagan sweeps to victory as the Republican 40th president of the United States, against the incumbent Jimmy Carter.



EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology

1981 Columbia, America’s first reusable spacecraft launched

1981 The US Center for Disease Control recognizes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).

1981 IBM launches its personal computer. This uses the Microsoft disk-operating system (MS-DOS), which soon becomes the industry standard.

1981 First woman elected to the Supreme Court Sandra Day O’Connor

1981 Wayne Williams arrested and convicted in 1982 for the multiple murders of 23 African American Children in Atlanta between 1979 and 1981

1981 The first DeLorean sports cars roll off the assembly line.

1981 Music Television (MTV) launched

1981 First reports of deaths at the time from disease what we now know to be called AIDS.

1981 50 year cultural news icon Walter Cronkite steps down from CBS, Dan Rather takes over.

1981 Computer game PAC MAN introduced

1982 Vietnam War Memorial build in Washington D.C.

1982 First compact disc player sold

1982 First issue of USA Today newspaper

1982 Trivial Pursuit was the hottest board game. Over 22 million games sold

1982 President Reagan’s “War on Drugs.” Nancy Reagan’s “Just Say NO” campaign launched.

1983 American writer Alice Walker publishes The Color Purple, a novel about the sexual abuse and self-fulfillment of a black woman.



EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology

1983 Sally Ride is the first woman in space

1983 Dr. Martin Luther King Day is created as a national holiday.

1983 Friendship pins, Jelly shoes, Ray-Ban Wayfarers and parachute pants are some of the many fashion statements of the year.

1984 Geraldine Ferraro chosen as first female vice presidential candidate

1984 Jesse Jackson first Black presidential candidate

1984 On 6 November, Ronald Reagan is re-elected US president against Walter Mondale.

1984 The Apple Macintosh computer, with mouse, is marketed.

1984 American and French scientists independently discover HIV, the human immuno-deficient virus responsible for AIDS.

1984 Vanessa Williams is the first Black Miss America

1985 “Where’s the Beef” is the cultural saying of the year

1985 Rock Hudson dies of AIDS

1986 On 28 January, US space shuttle Challenger explodes on take-off, killing all its crew, including teacher Christa McAuliffe. It is later discovered that the disaster was caused by a faulty seal. Space shuttle flights are suspended for 2.5 years.

1986 Iran Contra scandal, Oliver “Ollie” North becomes a household name

1986 The Anti-Apartheid Act passed in the US imposes strict sanctions on South Africa and causes many multinational companies – for example, General Motors and Esso – to disinvest.



EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology

1987 Bill Gates, co-founder of Microsoft, becomes the first microcomputer billionaire.

1987 Baby Jessica falls into a well October 14th.

1987 Liberace dies of AIDS but refuses to admit he has it.

1987 Condom commercials air on TV

1988 Research money allowed for studies and new treatments for heart, cancer, and other diseases.  Major advances in genetics research led to the 1988 funding of the Human Genome Project.  This project will locate the estimated 80,000 genes contained in human DNA.

1988 George Bush 1elected as president

1988 Martin Scorsese's film The Last Temptation of Christ attracts violent demonstrations from fundamentalist Christian groups.

1988 December 2, President Bush and Mikhail Gorbachev of the Soviet Union officially declare the end of the Cold War.

1988 Madonna’s “Like a Prayer” video causes controversy and is condemned by religious groups.

1988 “Oprah” is the hottest talk show host on television.

1989 First Black coach “Art Shell” to coach for NFL and win on Monday Night Football.

Families changed drastically during these years.  The 80s continued the trends of the 60s and 70s - more divorces, more unmarrieds living together, more single parent families.  The two-earner family was even more common than in previous decades, more women earned college and advanced degrees, married, and had fewer children.



EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology

1990 The Hubble telescope was put into orbit

1990 Nelson Mandela is freed, and negotiates end of Apartheid.

1991Operation “Desert Storm” launched to liberate Kuwait from Iraq

1991Freddie Mercury, lead singer of the pop group Queen, dies of Aids on 24 November.

1992 William Jefferson Clinton, Governor of Arkansas defeats incumbent George H. Walker Bush during the Presidential election.

1992 Los Angeles riots over the Rodney King attack by LA police offices is caught on tape

1993 First World Trade Center bombing February 26.

1993 On 19 April, the FBI/AFT siege of the headquarters of the Branch Davidian cult in Waco, Texas, ends after 51 days with the compound consumed by fire. Cult leader David Koresh is among those killed.

1993 The British pop group The Spice Girls promotes 'girl power'.



EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology

1994 OJ Simpson arrested for double murder.

1994 Nelson Mandela elected president of South Africa

1994 North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)

1995 Federal building in Oklahoma City bombed by Timothy McVeigh a U.S. Army Veteran.

1996-1999 14 School Shootings including Columbine HS in Littleton Colorado April 20, 1999.

1996 President Clinton re-elected to second term, defeating Republican candidate Bob Dole.

1997 Princess Diana is killed in a high speed car accident

1997 Cloning is introduced when scientist clone a sheep

1997 Tiger Woods wins Masters

1998 Titanic most popular movie

1998 President Clinton Impeached for lying to Congress in regards to the Monica Lewinski scandal

1998 Sexual enhancement drug “viagra” hits the market.

1999 President Clinton acquitted on charges of lying to Congress

1999 JFK Jr. dies in plane crash

1999 Y2K

2000 Millennium begins



EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology

women of the 20 th century

Women of the 20th Century

Strand 6

Notable Firsts in Women’s Achievements



EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology

1903 Mary McCloud Bethune established secondary school that is now a 4 year accredited college “Bethune Cookman College.”

1910 Blanche Scott first woman to fly an aircraft

1916 Jeannette Rankin First woman in Congress (U.S. House of Representative)

1917 Kate Gleason First woman national bank president

1920 Florence E. Allen First woman judge

1924 Hallie “Ma” Ferguson First woman governor (State of Texas)

1931 Jane Addams first woman Nobel Peace prize winner

1933 Ruth Bran Owen first woman foreign diplomat

1939 Hattie McDaniel first African American of any gender to win an Academy Award.

1941 Linda Darnell First woman to sell securities on the NY Stock Exchange

1944 Georgia Nesse Clark first woman US Treasurer

1967 Muriel Siebert first woman to own a seat on the NY Stock Exchange

1978 Mary Clarke First woman Major General US Army

1981 Sandra Day O’Connor first woman Supreme Court Justice

1983 Sally Ride first American woman to reach outer space

1985 Penny Harrington first woman police chief (Portland Oregon)

1986 Christa McAuliffe first woman citizen passenger in space.



EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology

1995 Lt. Col. Eileen Collins first woman to pilot a space shuttle

1997 Madeline Albright first woman Secretary of State and highest ranking woman in the U.S Govt.

2000 Hillary Rodham Clinton first former First Lady elected to the U.S. Senate.

2005 Condoleezza Rice first African American woman Secretary of State

2007 Nancy Pelosi first woman Speaker of the House of Representatives

2009 Michelle Obama first African American First Lady.



EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology




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EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology




Linda Darnell

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EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology




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EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology



Culminating Project: Timeline

EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology


Paivio, A. (1986). Mental Representations. New York: Oxford University Press

Lave, J., & Wenger, E. (1990). Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press


Culminating Project: Timeline

EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology



Culminating Project: Timeline

EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology



Culminating Project: Timeline

EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology



Culminating Project: Timeline

EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology



Culminating Project: Timeline

EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology



Culminating Project: Timeline

EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology