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  1. Culminating Project: Timeline LEGEND Marion Carter EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology

  2. Technology Timeline Strand 1 TOFFLER’S THREE WAVES EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology

  3. Agricultural Age First Wave: The Agricultural Age 0-8000 BC The first wave era was the first turning point in human social development, and dominated the earth unchallenged until 1650-1750 AD (Toffler, 1980). Before the First wave of change, most humans lived in small, often migratory groups and fed themselves by foraging, fishing, hunting, or herding. At some point, roughly ten millennia ago, the agricultural revolution began, and it crept slowly across the planet spreading villages, settlements, cultivated land, and a new way of life. EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology

  4. Industrial Age Second Wave: The Industrial Age 0-1600 is the society during the Industrial Revolution (ca. late 1600s through the mid-1900s). The main components of the Second Wave society are nuclear family, factory-type education system and the corporation. Toffler writes: "The Second Wave Society is industrial and based on mass production, mass distribution, mass consumption, mass education, mass media, mass recreation, mass entertainment, and weapons of mass destruction. You combine those things with standardization, centralization, concentration, and synchronization, and you wind up with a style of organization we call bureaucracy." (Toffler, 1980) EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology

  5. Information Age Third Wave: The Information Age 0-1956 Third Wave is the post-industrial society. Toffler would also add that since late 1950s most countries are moving away from a Second Wave Society into what he would call a Third Wave Society. He coined lots of words to describe it and mentions names invented by him (super-industrial society) and other people (like the Information Age, Space Age, Electronic Era, Global Village, technetronic age, scientific-technological revolution), which to various degrees predicted demassification, diversity, knowledge-based production, and the acceleration of change (one of Toffler’s key maxims is "change is non-linear and can go backwards, forwards and sideways"). EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology

  6. Technology Timeline Strand 2 TECHNOLOGY 1900 2000 EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology

  7. Advances and Innovations 1900 1909 1900-1909 1900 Charles Seeberger invented the modern escalator 1901 The first radio receiver successfully received a radio transmission. Hubert Booth invents the modern vacuum cleaner 1902 Willis Carrier invents the air conditioner The polygraph machine is invented by James Mackenzie Neon light was invented by George Claude 1903 Wright brothers invented the first gas motored and manned airplane Mary Anderson invents windshield wipers 1904 Electronic amplifying tube is invented 1907 Color Photography invented by Auguste and Louise Lumiere 1908 J.W. Geiger and W Muller invented the geiger counter EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology

  8. Advances and Innovations 1910 1919 1910-1919 1910 Thomas Edison demonstrated the first talking motion picture. 1911 The first automobile electrical ignition system invented by Charles Kettering 1912 Motorized movie cameras invented 1912 Clarence Crane created Life Savers candy 1914 Garrett A. Morgan invented the gas mask 1915 Pyrex was invented by Eugene Sullivan and William Taylor 1916 Radio tuners that received different stations was invented EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology

  9. Advances and Innovations 1920 1929 1920-1929 1920 Tommy Gun patented by John Thompson 1921 First robot built (beginning of artificial life) 1922 First 3-D movie is released 1923 Garrett A. Morgan invents a traffic signal Television (iconoscope) cathode ray tube invented John Harwood invented the self-winding watch 1924 Rice and Kellogg invent the loudspeaker 1925 The mechanical television invented by John Baird 1926 Liquid fuel rockets invented by Robert Goddard 1927 JWA Morrison invents the first quartz crystal watch Paul Galvin invents the car radio EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology

  10. Advances and Innovations 1930 1939 1930-1939 1930 Neoprene invented by Wallace Carothers and Dupont Differential analyzer (analog computer invented at MIT) Frank Whittle and Dr. Hans von Ohain invent jet engine 1931 Harold Edgerton invented stop action photography The electron microscope is invented 1932 Polaroid photography invented Zoom lens and light meter invented Karl Jansky invents the radio telescope 1933 Frequency modulation invented by Edwin Armstrong 1934 Joseph Begun invents the first tape recorder for broadcasting EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology

  11. Advances and Innovations 1930 1939 1930-1939 (continued) 1936 Roy Plunkett invented tetrafluoroethylene polymers (teflon) First working turboprop. 1939 Electron microscope invented EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology

  12. Advances and Innovations 1940 1949 1940-1949 1940 Dr William Reich invents the orgone accumulator Peter Goldmark invents modern color television 1941 Konrad Zuse creates “Z3” the first computer controlled by software Enrico Fermi invents the neutronic reactor. 1942 J. Atanasoff and C Berry built the first digital computer 1943 Emile Gagnan and Jacques Cousteau invent aqualung 1944 Kidney dialysis machine invented by Willem Kolff Synthetic cortisone invented by percy Julian 1945 The atomic bomb invented 1946 Microwave oven invented by Percy Spencer EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology

  13. Advances and Innovations 1950 1959 1950-1959 1951 Power steering invented by Francis Davis Charles Ginsburg invented the first video tape recorder 1952 First patent for barcode issued Edward Teller builds hydrogen bomb 1953 Radial tires invented First musical synthesizer invented by RCA David Warren invents the flight recorder Transistor radio invented by Texas Instrument 1957 Fortran, the computer language invented 1958 Computer modem invented Gordon Gould invents the laser Integrated circuit invented by J. Kilby and R. Noyce 1959 Internal pacemaker invented by Wilson Greatbatch Kilby and Noyce invent the microchip EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology

  14. Advances and Innovations 1960 1969 1960-1969 1960 The halogen lamp invented 1962 The audio cassette invented Spacewar, the first computer video game invented Silicone breast implants invented by Dow Corporation 1963 The video disk invented 1964 Basic, (computer language) invented by Kemeny and Kurtz 1965 Compact disk invented by James Russell 1969 Arpanet the first internet invented Artificial Art invented Automated Teller Machine invented The barcode scanner invented EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology

  15. Advances and Innovations 1970 1979 1970-1979 1970 Daisy wheel printer invented Floppy disk invented 1971 Dot matrix printer, food processor, microprocessor, VCR and LCD invented 1972 Word processor invented First video game invented 1973 Gene splicing invented Ethernet invented by Robert Metcalfe and Xerox 1974 Georgio Fischer invents liposuction 1975 Laser printer invented 1976 Cell phone invented Supercomputer invented by Seymour Cray Walkman invented EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology

  16. Advances and Innovations 1980 1989 1980-1989 1981 MS-DOS invented First IBM-PC invented Scanning tunneling microscope invented 1982 Human growth hormone genetically engineered 1983 The Apple Lisa invented Soft bifocal contact lens invented virtual reality coined by Jaron Lanier 1984 CD-ROM invented Apple Macintosh invented 1985 Windows program invented by Microsoft 1986 High temperature super conductor invented Synthetic skin invented Doppler radar invented by Christian Doppler 1989 High Definition Television invented EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology

  17. Advances and Innovations 1990 1999 1990-1999 1990 World Wide Web and internet protocol and www language created 1991 Digital answering machine invented 1993 Pentium processor invented 1995 Java computer language invented DVD invented 1996 WebTV invented 1997 gas powered fuel cell invented EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology

  18. Advances and Innovations 2000 200? 2000 FluidSense infusion pump invented 2001 AbioCor artificial heart invented Artificial liver invented Fuel cell bike invented by Aprillia Self cleaning windows invented by PPG industries Apple Computers announced their portable digital player, the Ipod 2002 Braille Glove invented by Ryan Patterson Phone tooth invented Solar Tower invented by Jorg Schlaich EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology

  19. Advances and Innovations 2000 200? 2003 Optical Camouflage System invented Toyota’s Hybrid Car Ka-on or Flower Sound (plants that play music) invented by Let’s Corporation Intel Express Chipsets that provide inexpensive built in sound and video capabilities for the PC including the ability to do high definition video editing. Sono Prep invented. This device delivers medication by sound waves rather than injection 2005 YouTube- online video sharing invented EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology

  20. Business and Corporate Timeline Strand 2 Work 1900 2000 EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology

  21. 1900 2000 • 1900 Olds Company begins mass producing automobiles • 1901 J. P. Morgan combines ten separate companies, including Carnegie Steel, to form the United States Steel Corporation. • 1903 Ford and Buick motor companies are founded • 1903 Wright Brothers make first flight • 1904 U.S. takes over construction of Panama Canal • 1906 W. K. Kellogg starts the Battle Creek Toasted Corn Flake Company. • 1908 Ford introduces the Model T. General Motors formed: Buick and Olds Motor Vehicle companies. • 1910 Joyce Hall begins a wholesale post card business (Hallmark) • 1911 Court orders breakup of Standard Oil • 1912 L.L. Bean formed • 1914 Panama canal opens • 1917 William Boeing renames his aviation company The Boeing Airplane Company. EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology

  22. 1900 2000 • 1919 Along with Westinghouse and other companies, General Electric forms the Radio Corporation of America (RCA). • 1920 Eddie Bauer's Tennis Shop opens; name soon changes to Eddie Bauer's Sports Shop. • 1922 Henry Luce forms Time, Inc. • 1923With his brother Roy, Walt Disney forms Disney Brothers Studio, which later becomes the Walt Disney Company. • Mass concentration of wealth through acquisitions, such as one with J.P. Morgan to form the United States Steel Company in 1901, and the unbridled power of investment banking firms, led labor unrest to the doorstep of a population of one percent owning more national wealth than the other 99 percent. • 1929 American Stock Market Crash • 1934 FDR signs bill for FHA Federal Housing Administration • 1938 Earl Tupper forms the Earl S. Tupper Company. (Tupperware) • 1939 First commercial television broadcast • 1942 All Chrysler, Ford, and General Motors plants convert to military production. EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology

  23. 1948 Richard and Maurice McDonald open their first fast-food restaurant in San Bernadino, California. 1957 First Japanese car sold in the US, the Toyota 1958 Bank of America launches the first credit card 1959 Berry Gordy launches the Tamla and Motown record labels after borrowing $800 from his family. 1962 The first Walmart and K-mart stores open and Coca Cola introduces Tab cola. 1965 President Johnson signs Medicare into law. 1968 NIKE shoe company launched 1969 Gap stores opened by Donald and Doris Fisher 1969 J.L. Hudson and Dayton Company Merger to form Dayton Hudson. Dayton Hudson Corporation operates the well-known Target discount stores, Mervyn's moderately priced retail stores, and the Dayton's, Hudson's, and Marshall Field department stores in the Midwest. 1971 First Starbucks opens 1971 Southwest Airlines begins first flights 1973 Federal Express begins operations from Memphis, TN. 1974 Wally “Famous”Amos begins production of cookies. 1990 2000 EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology

  24. 1975 Microsoft formed 1976 Apple Computer begins software development of personal computers 1978 Ben and Jerry’s open first ice cream shop in Vermont. 1985 Formation of HARPO productions, self named and owned by Oprah Winfrey and the Oprah Winfrey Show, formally A.M. Chicago 1985 Michael Jordan signs with NIKE 1989 Time Inc, and Warner Communications merge to form Time Warner 1994 Dream Works SKG entertainment formed 1995 Jeff Bezos opens, the online bookstore 1996 Time Warner purchases Ted Turner’s Turner Broadcasting parent company of Cable News Network 1997 Martha Stewart buys her magazine Martha Stewart Living from Time Wamer and launches Martha Stewart Living Omnimedia, Inc. 1998 Chrysler merges with Daimler-Benz to form Chrysler Daimler AG 2000 Dayton Hudson becomes “Target” department stores 2001 America Online buys Time Warner forming AOL Time Warner 1900 2000 EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology

  25. Learning Theory Timeline Strand 4 Education 1900 2000 EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology

  26. Thorndike: Law of Effect 1903 The association between a stimulus and a response will strengthen or weakened depending on whether a satisfier or an annoyer follows the response. Actions that lead immediately to pleasure are remembered and repeated, eventually fossilizing into habits, whereas actions leading to pain are suppressed or avoided. Click Picture

  27. Wilhelm Wundt:Gestalt Psychology: 1910 Wilhelm Wundts Gestalt psychology is a school of thought that looks at the human mind and behavior as a whole. Click Picture

  28. Piaget: Genetic Epistomology1929 GENETIC EPISTEMOLOGY attempts to explain knowledge, and in particular scientific knowledge, on the basis of its history, its socio-genesis, and especially the psychological origins of the notions and operations upon which it is based. These notions and operations are drawn in large part from common sense, so that their origins can shed light on their significance as knowledge of a somewhat higher level. But genetic epistemology also takes into account, wherever possible, formalization - in particular, logical formalizations applied to equilibrated thought structures and in certain cases to transformations from one level to another in the development of thought. Click Picture

  29. Horkheimer: Traditional and Critical Theory 1937 Critical theory is the examination and critique of society and culture, drawing from knowledge across the social sciences and humanities. The term has two quite different meanings with different origins and histories, one originating in social theory and the other in literary criticism. Click Picture

  30. B. F. Skinner: Operant Conditioning 1938 A process of behavior modification in which the likelihood of a specific behavior is increased or decreased through positive or negative reinforcement each time the behavior is exhibited, so that the subject comes to associate the pleasure or displeasure of the reinforcement with the behavior. Click Picture

  31. Guthrie: Contiguity Theory 1956 Guthrie's contiguity theory specifies that "a combination of stimuli which has accompanied a movement will on its recurrence tend to be followed by that movement". According to Guthrie, all learning was a consequence of association between a particular stimulus and response. Furthermore, Guthrie argued that stimuli and responses affect specific sensory-motor patterns; what is learned are movements, not behaviors. Click Picture

  32. Miller: Information Processing Theory 1956 The information processing theory approach to the study of cognitive development evolved out of the American experimental tradition in psychology. Information processing theorists proposed that like the computer, the human mind is a system that processes information through the application of logical rules and strategies. Like the computer, the mind has a limited capacity for the amount and nature of the information it can process. Click Picture

  33. Bruner: Discovery Learning 1966 There are four components to the Discovery Learning Theory: 1. Curiosity and uncertainty 2. Structure of knowledge 3. Sequencing 4. Motivation Discovery learning takes place in problem solving situations where the learner draws on his own experience and prior knowledge and is a method of instruction through which students interact with their environment by exploring and manipulating objects, wrestling with questions and controversies, or performing experiments. Click Picture

  34. Bandura: Social Learning Theory 1969 The social learning theory of Bandura emphasizes the importance of observing and modeling the behaviors, attitudes, and emotional reactions of others. Bandura (1977) states: "Learning would be exceedingly laborious, not to mention hazardous, if people had to rely solely on the effects of their own actions to inform them what to do. Fortunately, most human behavior is learned observationally through modeling: from observing others one forms an idea of how new behaviors are performed, and on later occasions this coded information serves as a guide for action." (p22). Social learning theory explains human behavior in terms of continuous reciprocal interaction between cognitive, behavioral, an environmental influences. Click Picture

  35. Paulo Freire: Pedagogy of the Oppressed 1969 "The oppressed, instead of striving for liberation, tend themselves to become oppressors“ "Liberation is thus a childbirth, and a painful one.""The oppressed want at any cost to resemble the oppressors.""Attempting to liberate the oppressed without their reflective participation in the act of liberation is to treat them as objects that must be saved from a burning building.""Implicit in the banking concept is the assumption of a dichotomy between human beings and the world: a person is merely in the world, not with the world or with others; the individual is spectator, not re-creator.""Problem-posing education affirms men and women as beings in the process of becoming.“ "To speak a true word is to transform the world.""Welfare programs as instruments of manipulation ultimately serve the end of conquest. They act as an anesthetic, distracting the oppressed from the true causes of their problems and from the concrete solutions of these problems."Leaders who do not act dialogically, but insist on imposing their decisions, do not organize the people--they manipulate them. They do not liberate, nor are they liberated: they oppress." Click Picture

  36. Edward de Bono: Lateral Thinking 1971 1. "You cannot dig a hole in a different place by digging the same hole deeper" This means that trying harder in the same direction may not be as useful as changing direction. Effort in the same direction (approach) will not necessarily succeed. 2. "Lateral Thinking is for changing concepts and perceptions" With logic you start out with certain ingredients just as in playing chess you start out with given pieces. But what are those pieces? In most real life situations the pieces are not given, we just assume they are there. We assume certain perceptions, certain concepts and certain boundaries. Lateral thinking is concerned not with playing with the existing pieces but with seeking to change those very pieces. Lateral thinking is concerned with the perception part of thinking. This is where we organize the external world into the pieces we can then 'process'. 3. "The brain as a self-organizing information system forms asymmetric patterns. In such systems there is a mathematical need for moving across patterns. The tools and processes of lateral thinking are designed to achieve such 'lateral' movement. The tools are based on an understanding of self-organizing information systems." This is a technical definition which depends on an understanding of self-organizing information systems. 4. "In any self-organizing system there is a need to escape from a local optimum in order to move towards a more global optimum. The techniques of lateral thinking, such as provocation, are designed to help that change." This is another technical definition. It is important because it also defines the mathematical need for creativity Click Picture

  37. Craik and Lockhart: Levels of Processing Theory 1972 These two authors proposed that memory was enhanced more by depth of processing than by how long information was rehearsed. They suggested that rehearsal was mainly effective if the rehearsal was done in a deep and meaningful way. In a number of experiments they demonstrated that passive rehearsal does not result in better retention. They opposed the view that short-term and long-term memory were different. Click Picture

  38. Meichenbaun: Cognitive Behavior Modification 1977 Donald Meichenbaum is a psychologist noted for his contributions to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). He developed a therapeutic technique called cognitive behavior modification (CBM), which focuses on identifying dysfunctional self-talk in order to change unwanted behaviors. In other words, Dr. Meichenbaum views behaviors as outcomes of our own self-verbalizations. Click Picture

  39. Vygotsky: Social Development Theory 1978 Social Development Theory argues that social interaction precedes development; consciousness and cognition are the end product of socialization and social behavior. Originator: Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934). Click Picture

  40. Feuerstein: Instrumental Enrichment 1980 Enhancing thinking and learning skills to increase achievement. Enhancing self-concept and intrinsic motivation to learn and solve problems. Click Picture

  41. Habermas: Critical Communication Theory 1981 Critical Theory agrees with that of Karl Marx in that ' must become conscious of how an ideology reflects and distorts ... reality ... and what factors ... influence and sustain the false consciousness which it represents -- especially reified powers of domination.' Habermas' 'perspective transformation' or transformed consciousness is similar to that of Marx and is akin to that experienced by research into the way that 'sexual, racial, religious, educational, occupational, political economic and technological' ideologies create or contribute to our dependency on 'reified powers'. Habermas differs from Marx in that Marx revised Hegelian thought to claim that a transformed consciousness should lead to a predictable form of action -- for example (Marx & Engels, 1969), the abolition of private property (p 96). Habermas posits no predictable outcomes (Mezirow, 1981). Click Picture

  42. Gagne: Conditions of Learning 1985 This theory stipulates that there are several different types or levels of learning. The significance of these classifications is that each different type requires different types of instruction. Gagne identifies five major categories of learning: verbal information, intellectual skills, cognitive strategies, motor skills and attitudes. Different internal and external conditions are necessary for each type of learning. For example, for cognitive strategies to be learned, there must be a chance to practice developing new solutions to problems; to learn attitudes, the learner must be exposed to a credible role model or persuasive arguments. Gagne suggests that learning tasks for intellectual skills can be organized in a hierarchy according to complexity: stimulus recognition, response generation, procedure following, use of terminology, discriminations, concept formation, rule application, and problem solving. The primary significance of the hierarchy is to identify prerequisites that should be completed to facilitate learning at each level. Prerequisites are identified by doing a task analysis of a learning/training task. Learning hierarchies provide a basis for the sequencing of instruction. Click Picture

  43. Wittrock: Generative Learning Theory 1986 Wittrock (1974a, 1974b) initially conceived of the model of generative learning that integrated several areas of cognitive psychology including cognitive development, human learning, human abilities, information processing, and aptitude treatment interactions. His work stems from an attempt to explain and prescribe teaching strategies to maximize reading comprehension. While most of the original research deals specifically with reading comprehension, in theory there is much transferability to learning for understanding in general, regardless of the medium or form of the external stimuli. This article embraces the broader interpretation of this theory and model of learning. Click Picture

  44. Pavio: Dual Coding Theory 1991 The dual coding theory proposed by Paivio attempts to give equal weight to verbal and non-verbal processing. Paivio (1986) states: "Human cognition is unique in that it has become specialized for dealing simultaneously with language and with nonverbal objects and events. Moreover, the language system is peculiar in that it deals directly with linguistic input and output (in the form of speech or writing) while at the same time serving a symbolic function with respect to nonverbal objects, events, and behaviors. Any representational theory must accommodate this dual functionality." (p 53). Click Picture

  45. Lave: Situated Learning 1991 Lave argues that learning as it normally occurs is a function of the activity, context and culture in which it occurs (i.e., it is situated). This contrasts with most classroom learning activities which involve knowledge which is abstract and out of context. Social interaction is a critical component of situated learning -- learners become involved in a "community of practice" which embodies certain beliefs and behaviors to be acquired. As the beginner or newcomer moves from the periphery of this community to its center, they become more active and engaged within the culture and hence assume the role of expert or old-timer. Furthermore, situated learning is usually unintentional rather than deliberate. These ideas are what Lave & Wenger (1991) call the process of "legitimate peripheral participation." Click Picture

  46. Society and Culture Strand 5 1900 20-- EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology

  47. John Dewey founded the first elementary school The Montessori Method (child centered alternative education) created and developed by Maria Montessori. Association of American Universities formed to promote high standards in colleges Safety in food processing and the environment became issues and laws were enacted Jim Crow Laws segregated national baseball President McKinley assassinated 1901 1900 1909 EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology

  48. The 1910s was a decade of great change for America.  It was during this decade that the United States was first considered a world leader.  Many of the issues of 1910 are ones we face today: including the escalation of immigration and poverty, labor and monopoly battles, work safety and child labor problems.  World War I - the first 'war to end all wars' raged. The 1910s were the decade America came of age. During the 1910s labor unions continued to grow as the middle classes became more and more unhappy. The Nineteenth Amendment (Amendment XIX) to the United States Constitution prohibits each of the states and the federal government from denying any citizen the right to vote because of that citizen's sex. It was ratified in 1919. The National Urban League begins. In October, the National Urban League was organized to help African-Americans secure equal employment. Professor Kelly Miller was a founding member. Federal segregation. On April 11, 1913 the Wilson administration began government-wide segregation of work places, rest rooms and lunch rooms. Red Summer." This was the year of the "Red Summer," with 26 race riots between the months of April and October. These included disturbances in the following areas:May 10 Charleston, South Carolina. July 13 Gregg and Longview counties, Texas. July 19-23 Washington, D. C. July 27 Chicago. October 1-3 Elaine, Arkansas. 1910 1919 EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology

  49. Harlem Renaissance is considered the first important movement of black artists and writers in the US.  Centered in Harlem, NY, and other urban areas during the 1920s, black writers published more than ever before.  Influential and lasting black authors, artists, and musicians received their first serious critical appraisal.  This group included Zora Neale Hurston, W.E.B. DuBois, Langston Hughes, Jean Toomer, and Alain Locke, who was considered the chief interpreter for the Harlem movement. The decade of the 1920s is often characterized as a period of American prosperity and optimism. It was the "Roaring Twenties," the decade of bath tub gin, the model T, the $5 work day, the first transatlantic flight, and the movie. It is often seen as a period of great advance as the nation became urban and commercial (Calvin Coolidge declared that America's business was business). The decade is also seen as a period of rising intolerance and isolation: chastened by the first world war, historians often point out that Americans retreated into a provincialism evidenced by the rise of the Ku Klux Klan, the anti- radical hysteria of the Palmer raids, restrictive immigration laws, and prohibition. Overall, the decade is often seen as a period of great contradiction: of rising optimism and deadening cynicism, of increasing and decreasing faith, of great hope and great despair. Put differently, historians usually see the 1920s as a decade of serious cultural conflict. The rise of bootleggers such as Al Capone in Chicago highlight the darker side of prohibition. In October 1929, the Wall Street Crash occurred. Its impact was felt worldwide. 1920 1929 EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology

  50. By the 1930s money was scarce because of the depression, so people did what they could to make their lives happy.  Movies were hot, parlor games and board games were popular.  People gathered around radios to listen to the Yankees.  Young people danced to the big bands.  Franklin Roosevelt influenced Americans with his fireside chats. The construction of the Empire State Building begins in NY. The Chrysler Building is completed. On March 3, 1931 the United States officially adopts “The Star Spangled Banner” as its national anthem. 1932 Unemployment reaches 14,000,000 The New Deal, introduced by F D Roosevelt was to transform America's economy which had been shattered by the Wall Street Crash. The economic downturn that followed the Wall Street Crash also had a major psychological impact on America and that Roosevelt was actually doing something did a great deal to boost America's self-esteem The New York's World Fair of 1939 - true to its theme of "The World of Tomorrow" - gave its estimated 25.8 million visitors a glimpse of the future.  The fairgoers marveled at the flickering images of a TV set at the RCA Building and were amazed at the General Motors exhibit of a seven-lane cross-country highway system.  Many of the innovations demonstrated did not become a part of every day life until after World War II, but there was a peek at the technology to come. 1930 1939 EDUC 8840 Evolution of Educational Technology