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Renaissance Timeline

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  1. Renaissance Timeline • 1323 Venice makes Great Council hereditary • 1343 Guild based government in Florence • 1450 Gutenberg printing press • 1452-1519 Leonardo da Vinci • 1494 France invades Italy • 1512 Machiavelli writes The Prince • 1546 Michelangelo appointed to complete St. Peter’s

  2. THE RENAISSANCE Adoration of the Magi Botticelli

  3. Renaissance Outline • What was the Renaissance? • Why Italy? • Education • City States • Venice & Florence • Painting, Sculpture and Architecture • Waning of the Italian Renaissance

  4. I. What was the Renaissance? • A rebirth of interest in classical knowledge, art, architecture and thought • Rediscovery of classical texts (e.g., Virgil, Ovid, and Cicero) • Rise of Humanism • Transition from medieval scholastic logic and meta-physics to language, literature, rhetoric, history, and ethics

  5. Renaissance Italy

  6. II. Why Italy? • Urbanization • 12.4% of population in cities over 10,000 • In year 1300 only Paris is larger than Milan (150,000) • Aristocrats lived in urban centers • Aristocrats and merchants less sharply defined

  7. II. Why Italy? • Political structure • Local self governing cities • predominantly republican – rely on educated citizens • Urban pride • Patronage of the aristocracy and papacy

  8. II. Why Italy? • International Affairs • Collapsing Byzantine Empire • Revitalized post-black death Europe

  9. II. Why Italy? • Education • public life demands education • Best-educated upper class in Europe

  10. Education • “Renaissance Man” - the universal man • breadth, not depth of study • “We cannot rightly understand one subject unless we can perceive its relation to the rest…”

  11. Education • wisdom, virtue, thirst for glorious achievement, modest, devout (not saintly), dancer, poet, orator • these show “true” nobility • “nobility must be due to virtue alone” • The Courtier • Women gain access to education.

  12. Gutenberg (1400?-1468) • Best known inventor of the printing press • starts with publication of the Bible • Changes Europe: • spreads of ideas of the Renaissance the Reformation.

  13. II. Why Italy? • Italian wealth • Generated primarily from spice trade • Italy wealthier than the rest of Europe • Italian writers and artists stayed at home rather than seeking employment abroad • Growth of banking

  14. Trade Routes in Europe

  15. Trade Routes from Asia

  16. II. Why Italy? • Marriage • different marriage age vs. Western Europe • women have higherdivorce/widow ratein Italy • age 15 90% divorced or widowed • age 25 97% divorced or widowed • large numbers of prostitutes • dowries increase in value.

  17. II. Why Italy? • Family • necessary for dowry • holds key to prospects • more significant for higher status families

  18. Renaissance Italy

  19. III. City States: Venice • Republic • Grows and establishes wide trading empire by 1400 • population is 10% of France but income is 150% • wealth concentration • top 100 families have 25% of wealth (top 1%) • 31% paid no taxes.

  20. Departure of the merchants, Venice

  21. III. City States: Venice • Major Venetian Artists • Giovanni Bellini (c. 1430–1516) • Giorgione (1478–1510) • Titian (c. 1490–1576) • Characteristics • Their art reflected the luxurious life of Venice • Their aim was to appeal to the senses, not the mind

  22. Renaissance Italy

  23. III. City States: Florence • Emerges from relative obscurity by 1300 • become bankers for Pope, grain merchants to Naples • becomes center of industry and banking • Oligarchic government (favors rich)

  24. III. City States: Florence • Emergence of civic nationalism • “our city is more important than our children” • merchants offer all of wealth to the city for its needs • emergence of secular rather than providential rise and fall of nations • “humans, not God, determine human affairs.” • Rise of condottieri • mercenaries replace citizen militia • taxation and centralization.

  25. De Medici family • Lived and dominated the city of Florence after 1430 • use of wealth to build political machine • marriage, loans, “gifts” and jobs • failure to join “party” of Medici meant political exclusion • example of the triumph of despotism over republicanism throughout Italy.

  26. IV. Artists and Writers • General tendencies • Laws of linear perspective were discovered in the fifteenth century • Experimented with the effects of light and shade (chiaroscuro) • Careful studies of human anatomy • Growth of lay patronage opened the door to nonreligious themes and subjects

  27. Horizon Line Vanishing Point Disappearing lines

  28. Donatello(1386? - 1466) • Considered the founder of modern sculpture • goes through phases in his work - gothic, classical, and finally action • creation of David in 1440

  29. Donatello's David

  30. IV. Artists and Writers • Renaissance painting in Florence • Sandro Botticelli (1445–1510) • Classical and Christian subjects • Allegory of Spring and Birth of Venus • Allegories compatible with Christian teachings

  31. Sandro Botticelli’s Birth of Venus

  32. IV. Artists and Writers • Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) • Personified the “Renaissance Man” • Painter, architect, musician, mathematician, engineer, inventor, and artist • The worship of nature and the essential divinity in all things • The Virgin of the Rocks • The Last Supper • Mona Lisa and Ginevra de Benci

  33. Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1527) • Renaissance man • kept drawing notebooks • rigorously accurate drawings • studies anatomy • sought to “portray the intention of man’s soul” • skillful use of perspective and vanishing points.

  34. Leonardo da Vinci’sThe Last Supper

  35. Virgin of the Rocks

  36. Sketches of the Shoulder

  37. HumanProportions

  38. Mona Lisa

  39. Helical Airscrew Architecture

  40. Study of the human head Water lifting devices

  41. IV. Artists and Writers • Painting in Rome • Raphael (1483–1520) • Portrayals of man as temperate, wise, and dignified • Disputà and the School of Athens

  42. Raphael Niccolini Madonna

  43. Raphael’s School of Athens

  44. St. George and the Dragon

  45. Raphael’s Alba Madonna

  46. IV. Artists and Writers • Michelangelo Buonarroti(1475–1564) • An idealist • Painter, sculptor, architect, and poet • The centrality of the male figure—powerful and magnificent • David to celebrate freedom for Florence • The Sistine Chapel paintings (1508–1512) • Commitment to classical aesthetic principles of art (harmony, solidity, dignified restraint) • The Last Judgment (1536)

  47. Michaelangelo's David

  48. Sistene Chapel

  49. Michelangelo’s Creation of Adam

  50. Last Judgement